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Saratoga and Juake Cham~ 
plain in jfcistory 

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Lake George, N. Y. 

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Copyright, 1898, 






Saratogaa Natural Battleground 1 

The Champlain Warpath 2 

The Making of Saratoga :> 

Geology of the Champlain Valley 4 

Saratogaa Hunting Ground 4 

The Discovery of Lake Champlain 5 

First Battle on Lake Champlain 5 

Father Jogues and Saratoga Lake (i 

First Purchasers of Saratoga 7 

First Invasion 7 

Saratoga an Outpost S 

Indian Battle Near Saratoga Springs 10 

The Hamlet of Saratoga 10 

First Meeting of French and English on Lake Cham 

plain 11 

Saratoga Opposed to Crown Point 13 

The Massacre of Saratoga 13 

A New Fort at Saratoga 14 

Saratoga in the Last French War 15 

A Fort at Ticonderoga 16 

First European at Saratoga Springs 17 

The Battle of Ticonderoga 17 

The Fall of Ticonderoga 23 

To the Final Conquest 25 

The Discovery of Saratoga Springs 26 

First Settlers at Saratoga Springs ^7 

Ethan Allen and Ticonderoga 28 

The Invasion of Canada 31 

Franklin at Saratoga 31 

Franklin a Voyager on Lake Champlain 32 

First Naval Struggle on Lake Champlain 32 

Plan for a Descent Upon Saratoga from the West and 

North 36 


Burgoyne's Army 37 

Burgoyne on Lake Champlain 38 

St Clair's Retreat 39 

The Chase 45 

Burgoyne at Whitehall 47 

The Battle of Fort Anne 47 

The Work of Obstruction 49 

Difficulties and Discouragements 50 

Jane McCrea 51 

First Move Upon Saratoga 54 

Falling Back 57 

Saratoga Invaded > 60 

The First Battle of Saratoga 64 

Between the Battles 68 

The Second Battle of Saratoga 70 

The Day After 77 

The Retreat 78 

The Pursuit * 80 

, A Trap fo>- the Americans at Saratoga 81 

The Cannonade 84 

The Surrender 86 

Results of the Saratoga Capitulation 91 

Saratoga Springs 93 

The Perils of Travel on Lake Champlain in 1807 . 95 

The Battle of Plattsburgh 102 




^aratocja aKc| Lake ChatT\£lait\ \t\ History, 

The story of Saratoga and Lake Champlain is 
necessarily the same. Lake Champlain and the 
Upper Hudson occupy one great valley and form a 
natural pathway between Canada and the United 
States. At Saratoga and on Lake Champlain, Eng- 
land and France long faced each other in hostile 
claims for the possession of the continent. At 
Saratoga more than at any other point the struggle 
of the Revolution was decided. Invasions from 
the north aimed at seizing the important military 
region in the angle of the Hudson and Mohawk, 
known as Saratoga ; expeditions from the south set 
forth from Saratoga to force a way through the 
Champlain valley. He who would know the story 
of one can not but find that of the other interwoven 
with it. 


Saratoga, in the widest sense of the name, is a 
triangle lying at the joining of two vastly important 


valleys, those of the Mohawk and the Champlain - 
Hudson. These watercourses for untold ages 
formed the sole highways between rival peoples, 
struggling for the mastery of a continent. By 
controlling these valleys in times past the Iroquois 
Indians succeeded in laying a foundation for the 
only native empire north of Mexico. The French 
and English succeeded them here in the struggle for 
the heart of North America, and in these same 
valleys England and her American colonies strove 
for the mastery of this vast land. Its location 
made it almost inevitable that the smiling region of 
Saratoga should have been the scene of one of the 
world's few decisive battles. 


Though the Mohawk Valley, which bounds Sara- 
toga on the south, has become, since the days of 
canals and railroads, of great commercial import- 
ance, it was in the early times too remote and its 
navigation too obstructed for the transportation of 
heavy cannon, hence the larger and more important 
armies moved through Lake Champlain to and from 
the Upper Hudson, while more lightly equipped 
expeditions co-operated with them by the Mohawk 
Valley. Lake Champlain has been for ages a war- 
path. Its discoverer, indeed, heard that Indians 
had formerly lived on some of the islands in this 
lake, but the wars of the New York Indians, with 
those of Canada, long made it an unsafe dwelling 
place, and it was deserted save by savage war 
parties which stole up and down its waters in their 
canoes on errands of surprise and massacre, often to 


return laden with the spoils of war and with trem- 
bling captives. This native warfare was suc- 
ceeded by the invasions of the French and Revo- 
lutionary wars, in which Indian warriors still 
played an important part. Gayly dressed and 
finely-drilled European troops mustered here year 
after year until finally, with the close of the last 
war with England, this great warpath of the 
nations was left solely to trade and to the tourist, 
who still finds the route to Canada to lie through 
the Champlain Valley, or seeks its shores for 
pleasure and recreation. 


Saratoga lies at the extreme southern end of the 
great Adirondack plateau, which is part of the 
Laurentian mountain system, the oldest on our 
continent, the first to rise above the ocean in remote 
ages. Before the time of the glacier the Upper 
Hudson traversed this region in a different direc- 
tion, taking its course southward between Mt. 
McGregor and the Kayaderoseras range of the 
Adirondack Mountains. When the ice melted the 
deposits of the glacial waters, loaded with sand and 
gravel, filled up this ancient channel of the Hudson 
and sent it winding and struggling through the 
Luzerne or Palmerstown mountains, and across the 
rocks at Glens Falls, Sandy Hill and Fort Edward. 
In these rocks the river has gradually cut a gorge, 
its falls having receded in the course of ages from 
Fort Edward to Glens Falls. The Upper Hudson 
was before the glacial age a tributary to the main 
stream which took its way through the Mohawk 

Valley, laden with the outlet waters of several of 
the great lakes. 

The hills of Saratoga are the work of the glacier, 
being deposited by the overflow of glacial waters on 
their way to the Hudson, like the bars in a river. 
This region was exposed to the sun and clothed in 
green long before the glacier had retreated from the 
flanks of the Green Mountains and the Adirondacks 
on either hand. Lying at the very edge of the 
Adirondack plateau, Saratoga's celebrated springs 
well up through a fault, or fissure, between the old 
Laurentian rock and that of a later formation. 


The Champlain Valley, together with the St. 
Lawrence, is thought once to have sunk below the 
sea level, causing an influx of ocean waters and a 
deposit of sea shells in this region. It was also once 
connected both with the Hudson and the St. Law- 
rence rivers, thus making an island of what is now 
New England. It still forms one valley with that 
of the Hudson, one of its tributaries, Halfway 
Brook, rising almost on the banks of the latter 


Saratoga county was long a hunting ground of 
the Mohawk Indians. The mineral springs, now so 
famous, were then the resort of animals craving 
their salt taste, and among this concourse of wild 
creatures the Indian hunter was sure to find 
abundant game. The Indians also had some 
notion of the value of these mineral waters, and 
used them in cases of illness. 


Champlain, like other explorers of his day, sought 
in the waters of North America for a western 
passage to the rich countries of Eastern Asia. He 
was attracted by rumors of a great body of water, 
with free passage into the St. Lawrence, to seek the 
lake which bears his name, in the company of an 
Algonquin war party, bound on an irruption into 
the Mohawk country by way of the Champlain 
Valley. The Indians had assured him of free water 
passage the whole way, and he was greatly disap- 
pointed to find rapids in the Richelieu River, but 
left his sailing craft behind him and, accompanied 
by only two French soldiers, made his voyage of 
discovery the remainder of the way in Indian 
canoes. He first saw the waters of Lake Champlain 
in July, 1609, and admired their extent and beauty. 
He was alive to all the curiosities of this region, and 
did not fail to note the peculiarities of the large 
fish known as the muskalonge. It was only the 
chance encounter of his Indian companions with an 
Iroquois war party, on its way through the great 
thoroughfare to Canada, that prevented Champlain 
from being the discoverer as well of the Upper 
Hudson and Saratoga regions several weeks before 
Hudson ascended the river which bears his name. 


It was the twenty-ninth of July, 1609, when the 
Indians in the Mohawk and Algonquin canoes 
descried each other. Fearful war whoops arose on 
either hand. The Mohawks took to the shore and 
raised a barricade ; the Canadian Indians lashed 

their canoes together, and danced and yelled 
defiance the livelong night upon the water. When 
day broke Champ ! ain and his two French followers 
lay low in the canoes, covered with deerskins, while 
their Indian allies paddled ashore. The Mohawks 
sallied from their shelter to meet their enemies, 
some of them clad in an armor of twigs inter- 
woven with deerthongs The two French soldiers 
were hastily hidden in the bushes on one side of the 
battle ground. At the beginning of the affray 
Champlain marched out from between the parted 
ranks of his Indian allies, a startling apparition to 
the Mohawks, and discharged his musket, loaded 
for the occasion with four balls. Two Mohawks 
fell ; the third was wounded. For a short time the 
arrows fell thick and fast upon both sides, but a 
discharge of fire arms from the two ambushed 
French soldiers so terrified the Mohawks that they 
broke and fled. There was the usual pursuit, the 
capture of prisoners, and the midnight torture of a 
victim, whose miseries Champlain finally ended 
with a musket ball. 


Probably the first European to set foot on Sara- 
toga soil was Father Jogues. the Jesuit missionary, 
who, as a tortured captive, passed through Lake 
Champlain, Lake George, and so southward through 
Saratoga county to the Mohawk in 1642. After a 
painful winter of captivity in Mohawk cabins he 
was taken by the Indian family with which he 
lived to a small body of water, believed to be Sara- 
toga Lake, for the fishing. Here, in the famished 

springtime, when the winter's store of corn had 
been exhausted, he and his captors lived, when 
better food failed, on the entrails of the last day's 
fish, or on frogs, both alike disgusting to the good 


The first white owners of a part of Saratoga 
were some Dutch merchants, of Albany, prominent 
among whom was Peter Schuyler, beloved by the 
Indians under the name of Quider. These men in 
1684 bought six miles wide on either side of the 
Hudson, from Mechanicville to the neighborhood of 
Fort Miller. This patent did not include the 
springs, for the earliest settlers only valued such 
lands as lay along the streams and lakes, then the 
sole highways. The tract of land which contained 
the springs was afterwards, under the name of 
Kayaderoseras patent, long a bone of contention 
between the Mohawks and New Yorkers, some of the 
the latter having bought it in 1708. and the former 
claiming that they had never meant to sell their 
great hunting ground, but only a farm upon it. It 
did not become the undisputed property of white 
men until 1768. 


For many years New York lay bare and exposed 
to invasion from the great warpath of the Cham- 
plain Valley to the northward. Given over to trade 
and commerce by her natural advantages, the col- 
ony neglected defense or trusted to the Mohawks, 
who were long embroiled with Canada by reason of 
the French alliance with the Algonquin Indians to de- 


fend them. In 1689, during the first of the four 
French wars which desolated this northern frontier, 
the Champlain Valley was chosen by Louis XIV, in 
faraway France, for a descent upon the Hudson, 
which, with the aid of two French vessels of war 
in New York harbor, was to reduce the colony to 
French rule. The vessels failed to reach American 
shores in season, and the scheme fell through, but 
the next year in midwinter a party of over two 
hundred French and Indians, armed against the 
cold with blanket coats and mittens, traveling on 
snow shoes and dragging their provisions on Indian 
toboggans, traversed the ice on Lake Champlain 
and Lake George, and, descending the Hudson, 
made a pathway of the frozen surfaces of Saratoga 
Lake and Fish Creek, the Mourning Kill and Balls- 
ton Lake on their way to the midnight surprise of 
the frontier village of Schenectady. The massacre 
which followed aroused the tardy New Yorkers to a 
sense of their danger and alarmed the New Eng- 
land colonies, whose sole western defense was the 
attenuated line of New York towns on the Hudson. 
The danger arising from the accessibility of the 
Hudson from the Champlain Valley caused the 
earliest combination of some of the American colo- 
nies, and was the occasion of the meeting of the 
first of Congresses in New York the following spring. 


There was a ford in the Hudson between the 
mouths of Fish Creek on the western and of the 
Batten Kill on the eastern bank of the stream. 
From time immemorial this had been the crossing 

place of the river for Indians, and it became that of 
white men. Here a blockhouse was built in the 
spring of 1690 at what afterwards became the village 
of Saratoga and is now Schuylerville. This outpost 
of civilization was garrisoned by a few Dutch 
soldiers, commanded by Peter Schuyler. The first 
of a great number of military expeditions destined 
to set forth from this post crossed the river at the 
Saratoga ford the same summer, toiling up the Hud- 
son partly in canoes, partly on foot along the river 
bank. At what is now Fort Miller the canoes were 
carried around falls in the river. At Fort Edward, 
known then as the Great Carrying Place, the small 
army left the Hudson and took its way some twelve 
miles through magnificent forests of white pine to 
Fort Anne. Save for a raid on the part of Major 
John Schuyler and a few men upon the Canadian 
village of La Prairie the expedition proved a failure 
and got no farther than Fort Anne. 

The next year Major Peter Schuyler, who cut an 
important figure in the early history of New York, 
set forth from the little outpost of Saratoga with 
two hundred and sixty white men and Indians. He 
descended Lake Champlain to the attack of La 
Prairie, not far from Montreal, where, after coming 
off victorious in a short fight, he cut clown the 
green corn in the fields. On retreating through the 
woods to his canoes on the Richelieu, he fell into a 
French and Indian ambuscade, but charged the 
enemy with great spirit, drove them from cover, 
fought his way through their midst, and then 
turned about to drive them back that he might 


retreat in safety up the Richelieu and Lake Cham- 
plain and down the Hudson to Saratoga. This was 
one of the most plucky struggles of the northern 
warpath, and savored little of Indian methods of 
warfare, as well it might, the Indian allies of both 
French and English having retreated at the outset 
of the contest. 


Two years later, 1693. Frontenac, the governor of 
Canada, retaliated upon New York in a way felt by 
the colony, which depended much upon Indian 
allies, by striking a blow at the Mohawks. A party 
of six hundred French and Indians traversed Lake 
Champlain, and, avoiding the Saratoga ford by 
crossing the Hudson above Glens Falls, pushed 
through what is now Wilton and Greenfield to 
strike a blow at the Mohawk allies of the English 
colonies. Peter Schuyler followed fast on the heels 
of the invaders, when they retreated from their 
work of destruction. He overtook them near an 
old Indian pass over the Palmerstown Mountains, in 
Wilton, and gave them battle almost within sight of 
Saratoga Springs. The French and Indians made 
their escape after the battle by crossing the Hudson 
on a cake of ice that chanced to be wedged in a 
bend of the river. 


During the fourteen years of peace that followed 
a little Dutch hamlet grew up near the block house 
fort at the Saratoga ford, this farthest outpost of 
the New York wilderness. Here Albany merchants 
built houses, and resorted at certain seasons of the 


year for trade, catching the Indian hunter as he 
returned from his hunt in the territory around 
Saratoga Springs, and gaining something in being 
on the ground to bid first for his furs, an object 
much sought in those days. During this time & 
lively smuggling trade was carried on between 
Albany and Canada by way of Saratoga and the 
Champlain Valley. It was not until 1709 that New 
Yorkers ceased filling their pockets and were drawn 
into the second French war. Again an expedition 
set forth against Canada by the great northern 
warpath under command of Colonel Nicholson. A 
stockaded fort was now built on the east side of the 
river opposite the little hamlet of Saratoga and 
called Fort Saratoga This fort was connected with 
Lake Champlain by a chain of temporary posts at 
the carrying places — one at Fort Miller, another at 
Fort Edward, and a third at Fort Anne. Having 
reached the latter spot the expedition, like the for- 
mer one, advanced no further, but spent the summer 
in waiting for the arrival at Boston of an English 
fleet which was to co-operate with it against Canada 
by attacking Quebec, but which had in fact been 
ordered elsewhere and never came. 


The French had meantime sent fifteen hundred 
men up Lake Champlain to take the English at Fort 
Anne by surprise, but they succeeded only in sur- 
prising themselves, for they fell in with some 
English scouts, their Indians were fired upon from 
an ambush, the savages themselves took some of 


their French Canadian allies in the woods for the 
enemy and fired upon them, and the commander of 
the expedition lost himself from his army for a 
time. After this chapter of accidents the French 
retreated, believing that they had come in contact 
with the English advance guard. This first blun- 
dering meeting of English and French soldiers in 
the Champlain Valley took place a little south of 
Crown Point, then known to the French as Pointe & 
le Chevelure, or Scalp Point. 


Thirty-one years of peace followed the second 
French war. The village of Saratoga grew and the 
French seized Lake Champlain. New York claimed 
the western shore of this valuable waterway, and 
New Hampshire and Massachusetts squabbled over 
its eastern border. "While they quarreled for the 
bone," in the words of an old writer, "the French 
ran away with it." Choosing Crown Point, where 
the lake contracts to the width of a river, they built 
a fort which they called St. Frederic, with walls 
twenty feet thick and high and an octagonal tower 
of black limestone, the whole being surmounted 
with twenty-six cannon and several mortars. To 
oppose this really formidable fortress New T York 
had only a weak stockaded fort at the Saratoga 
ford, manned with thirteen men and officers. This 
little garrison which sheltered itself with difficulty, 
and its ammunition scarcely at all beneath its leaky 
barrack roof, would yet have perished with drought 
for lack of a well had Saratoga been besieged. New 
York governors rated their assemblies on the needs 


of Fort Saratoga, but the representatives engaged in 
a . long struggle with the royal power, destined to 
culminate in the Revolution, would grant nothing 
for military defenses, fearing to put power into the 
governor's hands, and thus it happened that the 
stockades and roofs of Fort Saratoga were left to rot. 


Such was the defenceless state of the sole northern 
outpost of New York, when in 1744 the war of the 
Austrian succession in Europe threw the new world 
into a fresh struggle. Governor Clinton urged the 
New York assembly to build forts at the carrying 
places and fords on the Hudson, and when the 
assembly refused unless he accepted its conditions 
and even neglected to repair the falling stockades of 
Fort Saratoga, he angrily withdrew the feeble gar- 
rison of this forlorn hope of a fort. 

In November, 1745, five hundred Canadians and 
Indians ascended Lake Champlain, marched to Fort 
Edward, where a trader named Lydius then lived, 
and, having imprisoned his servants that no warning 
might, reach the devoted village of Saratoga, the 
marauders descended the Hudson, capturing by the 
way a man and his wife with a wagon load of flour. 
The woman tried to turn the invaders aside, assur- 
ing them that there were two hundred men in Fort 
Saratoga awaiting them with resolution, but they 
probably had better information for they proceeded 
and on the morning of November fifteenth fell upon 
the little village. They made prisoners of those 
who surrendered peacefully, but killed all who 
resisted or ran, as men working in the field naturally 


did. The Philip Schuyler of that day, who lived 
in a large brick house pierced with loopholes, 
answered a Canadian officer who knew him and 
promised him good treatment in case of surrender, 
with the words: "You are a dog and I will kill 
you." Whereupon he was shot. Thirty people 
were killed, sixty were carried away to captivity, 
houses and mills, barns full of wheat and corn, and 
stables full of animals as well as the fort and the 
houses of Albany merchants, who resorted here at 
certain seasons of the year for trade with the 
Indians, all were burned to the ground. 


The massacre of Saratoga aroused the people of 
New York, and the next year a new and larger fort 
was built on the Saratoga side of the river in the 
angle of the Hudson and Fish Creek. This post was 
named Fort Clinton in honor of the governor of 
that name. 

The third French war beat severely upon the 
exposed region of Saratoga and below. Twenty- 
seven scalping and marauding parties are said to 
have fallen upon this region, let loose by the 
ambitious struggles of European monarchs over the 
control of a crown. New York could in fact no 
longer rely on the Mohawk Indians for keeping the 
enemy at bay, the rage of these Indians against the 
French, which dated from Champlain's battle with 
them, having nearly subsided. It was to little 
purpose that the new Indian agent of the Mohawk, 
William Johnson, urged these people to "go a 


In 1747 a body of French and Indians made an 
attempt upon the new fort at Saratoga, approaching 
it stealthily and concealing their main force in 
hopes of surprising the garrison. A few scouts 
were sent to decoy the garrison out of the fort, and 
lay in hiding until two Englishmen came out. The 
Indians then fired upon them, and when attacked 
made off as though they were wounded. A hundred 
and twenty of the garrison at once sallied from the 
fort and went in pursuit. They soon fell into an 
ambuscade of French and Indians, who at once 
opened fire upon them. The English resisted 
stoutly, aided by the guns of the fort, but the 
invaders rushed upon them tomahawk in hand. 
Some escaped to the fort, though so closely pursued 
as to be scarcely able to close the gates upon their 
pursuers; others ran down the hill to the river, 
where they were either drowned or tomahawked. 
This affair occurred where at a later day Burgoyne's 
army laid down its arms. The following fall the 
fort at Saratoga was abandoned for lack of supplie s 
and burned to the ground. No disastrous results 
followed for peace was soon after declared. 


But six years passed before war again broke out. 
This time America embroiled Europe in her own 
quarrels, the French in America having made a 
well organized effort to secure the heart of the 
continent by the seizure of important military 
points on the main watercourses, their claim to 
inland territory reaching eastward almost to the 
important Saratoga triangle. Again did Saratoga 


become a point of importance, and again did a new 
fort arise on the ruins of the old, now named Fort 
Hardy in honor of the ruling governor. Here the 
army of General Johnson, the Indian agent and 
trader, halted on its way northward to the attack of 
Crown Point. Past this spot ran a new military 
road cut through the forests from Albany to Lake 
George by the advancing army, and here the 
numerous military expeditions of this war crossed 
the Hudson. Fort Edward, or Fort Lyman as it 
was at first called, came into existence at this time, 
and with its building Saratoga ceased to be an 
outpost and became one of a chain of posts succor- 
ing and sheltering the great armies which marched 
up and down the Hudson year after year in the 
last French war, co-operating with others that took 
their way through the Mohawk Valley southward of 
the Saratoga triangle to the defense of Oswego and 
the capture of Niagara. 


The English colonies in the summer of 1775 
advanced their front of former wars from Saratoga 
to Lake George; the French pushed forward from 
Crown Point to Ticonderoga. The English thought 
to beleaguer Crown Point; the French planned to 
thrust the English back from Fort Edward. Neither 
expedition reached its destination, but both met at 
the head of Lake George, where a battle was 
fought in which the French were routed. After 
the battle of Lake George the French built a Fort 
at Ticonderoga, which they named Carillon, because 
of the musical sound of falling waters in the outlet 
stream of Lake George. 


In the summer of 1757 a brilliant army of ten 
thousand French, Canadians, and Indians, in com- 
mand of Montcalm, ascended Lake Champlain and 
made a rendezevous of Ticonderoga, where the 
savages distinguished themselves by eating an 
Englishman, captured in a skirmish on Lake 
George. This army ascended Lake George to the 
siege and capture of Fort William Henry. The fall 
of this po3t and the massacre which followed so 
terrified the country below that Montcalm might 
have taken Fort Edward, and perhaps have been 
able to threaten Albany from Saratoga had he not 
lacked the means for transporting cannon and 
supplies to the Hudson. 

It was after Ticonderoga became the advanced 
French post that an event happened, which is one 
of the many that link the history of Saratoga and 
Lake Champlain into one continuous story. A 
French officer lay ill in Fort Ticonderoga. An 
Indian, one of those Mohawks, no doubt, who had 
been induced to desert their former home to live in 
Canada under the name of Caugnawagas, told the 
sick man of the wonderful healing powers of a 
certain spring, and guided him, it is believed, to the 
High Rock spring of Saratoga to use its waters. 


In 1758, the great Minister Pitt having come into 

power in England, the English took the offensive 

again in the Hudson- Champlain Valley, and an 

army of sixteen thousand men crossed the Hudson 


at Saratoga on the way to an attack upon Ticon- 
deroga. This force was nominally commanded by 
Abercromby. but the real leader was Lord Howe, a 
gifted young officer, who for this frontier warfare 
cut short the men's hair and coat tails, and browned 
their polished gun barrels. He abolished camp beds 
and camp followers, sleeping himself upon a bear 
skin, washing his OAvn linen, and by way of example 
he asked his officers to a dinner of pork and beans 
eaten from a common dish with pocket knives and 
forks. Under such a leader everything progressed 
rapidly, and by the sixth of July the army, after 
making the passage of Lake George, landed near 
the Baldwin of our day. The opposing French 
army lay within the loop made by the outlet stream 
between Lake George and Ticonderoga. Across 
this loop ran the only road, but the French had 
destroyed the bridges by which it crossed the stream, 
and an attempt was made to march the English 
army through the woods around the loop of the 
stream toward the fort and so to get into the rear of 
the French army. The English, however, became 
confused in the woods, and the vanguard of Ameri- 
can rangers, with Lord Howe at their head, fell in 
unexpectedly with an advanced party of the French 
army which had been engaged in watching the 
English landing and was now making its way back 
to the fort through the valley of Trout Brook. 
Near where this brook enters the outlet stream an 
encounter took place between the colonist rangers 
of the English army and the French, in which 
Lord Howe fell at the first volley. A panic seized 


the English. Always at a loss in the forests of 
America, regiments threw themselves one on 
another, and General Abercromby was near being 
dragged off in the confusion. But other bodies of 
Americans in the English army, more used to woods 
warfare than the English, came to the aid of the 
advance guard, and the French, caught between 
two forces, at first fought savagely and at length 
broke and fled to be either shot or drowned in the 
outlet stream. Of three hundred and fifty only 
fifty escaped. The English loss was even greater, 
for though but ten were killed, Lord Howe, the life 
of the expedition, was among their number. 

General Abercromby had had quite enough of the 
woods, and after spending a night of indecision 
near the scene of the recent struggle returned to 
the Lake George landing place, resolved to march in 
future by roads. This delay gave Montcalm time to 
retire from his camp within the loop of the stream 
to the rocky plateau in the rear of the fort which he 
began hastily to fortify with a rude barricade of logs, 
bags of earth and sods, outside of which he caused 
trees to be felled with their branches outward, thus 
forming a huge abbatis. The French wished only 
for time in which to complete their defense, and 
this Abercromby by his halting and slow move- 
ments gave them. Montcalm had but four thousand 
men, and feared being cut off from Crown Point by 
a movement in his rear. Abercromby, on the other 
hand, believed Montcalm to be much stronger than 
he was, feared he would be reinforced, and pro- 
posed to take the fort by assault rather than by a 


regular siege, before which it inust have fallen. 

On the eight of July. 1758, the English moved to 
the attack in three columns, and the French 
dropped their shovels and axes and took up their 
arms. The English pressed on until they reached 
the ahbatis. where they became fearfully entaii- 
Some were impaled on sharpened branches, and all 
who approached to within fifteen paces of the 
French line were killed. They fell back declaring 
that the French position could not be taken at 
the point of the bayonet. Abercromby. who was 
himself well in the rear, ordered a fresh charge. 
On came the English again under the terrible fire 
of the French, of whom they could see nothing 
but their caps above the barricade. They combined 
to attack the right, the center and the left. To 
each point Montcalm, in his shirt sleeves, for it was 
midsummer weather, hurried with reinforcements. 
The French cheered their general and their king 
and fought furiously. While the battle raged in 
front an attempt was made on the part of a force of 
men in twenty battea;.: _ t by water into the 

French rear, but some well directed cannon shot 
from the fort sank two of the boats and forced the 
others to retire. 

Six times in six hours the English struggled up 
against a murderous tire to fling themselves in vain 
against the hopele— tangle of the French al 
At five o'clock a determined assault was made upon 
the right of the French position, the English hewing 
their way to the foot of the breastworks. Twenty- 
five officers of the Highland regiment fell in this 


assault, dying Scotchmen calling to their comrades 
"not to lose a thought upon them but to mind the 
honor of their country." At six o'clock the Eng- 
lish made their last charge and fell back for the last 
time, the rangers and other bodies of American 
troops keeping up a distant firing for some time 
longer to cover the retreat and the removal of the 

Among the wounded Highland officers was a 
Major Campbell, of Inverawe, who, as tradition 
goes, had been warned by the ghost of a cousin, 
whose murderer he had unwittingly sheltered, of 
his death at a place then to him unknown, named 
Ticonderoga. He is said to have gone into the battle 
with many misgivings. His wound was in the arm, 
and he died at Fort Edward more as it seems to the 
modern mind of the careless surgery of the day than 
by ghostly appointment. During the battle some 
Englishmen were near entering the French works, 
supposing the enemy had surrendered, for the rea- 
son that a Frenchman, as a vent to his excitement, 
had waived a handkerchief tied to his gun. The 
French took the English in their turn for men who 
had capitulated as they ran forward holding their 
guns above their heads and calling "quarter." 
They were about to receive them into the works 
when a French officer convinced his men of their 
mistake, and a volley was fired in the face of the 
approaching English, who were disgusted with 
what they took for a bit of French deceit. One 
plucky Rhode Island man contrived to get under 
the very edge of the French breastworks, where he 


killed several Frenchmen, and when at length they 
discovered him and wounded him gravely by firing: 
down upon him he sprang up and brained with his 
hatchet a Frenchman on the other side of the barri- 
cade. An English officer who saw this action sent 
men to bring him off, and two weeks later he was 
recovering of his wounds and able to curse the 
French stoutly. 

The English losses in the battle of Ticonderaga 
amounted to nineteen hundred men. six hundred of 
whom were killed outright, the largest loss in one 
battle that has ever occurred in this northern war- 
path of the nations. The French losses were three 
hundred and seventy -seven, not counting those who 
had perished in the skirmish of two days before. 
Never had human life been wasted to less purpose. 
Abercromby had still abundant men and all the 
cannon for a regular siege, but he was no leader. 
The men were fearfully disheartened by the horrors 
of the recent battle, and to the astonishment of the 
French the whole army, the largest which ever 
visited this region, was soon in full retreat up Lake 
George, leaving behind much baggage and provi- 
sions, together with a number of shoes sticking fast 
in the mud of a marsh through which the army 

The battle of Ticonderoga was called by the 
French, who claimed Lake Champlain for French 
territory, a descent into Canada, and there was 
great exultation over Montcalm's victory. The 
English on the other hand were deeply mortified at 
Abercromby's defeat, and this general was after- 

ward known to his own men as "Mrs. Nabby- 

Under the vigorous management of Pitt, the 
English had pushed the French back at all other 
points except on Lake Champlain, and the danger 
to the interior of Canada was now so great that 
Montcalm had soon to consider the possibility of 
being forced to abandon Ticonderoga. The follow- 
ing year, 1759, when Wolfe appeared before Quebec, 
General Amherst advanced against Ticonderoga 
with an army of eleven thousand men. This post 
was now in command of a French officer named 
Burlamaque and defended by almost as many men 
as had the year before defeated Abercromby, but 
Burlamaque had orders, after making a show of 
resistance, to abandon the fort and retreat through 
Lake Champlain to the Richelieu, there to defend 
Montreal. To deceive the English he busily 
strengthened his defenses until Amherst's army 
approached, when he withdrew within the fort. 
The barricade which the English had stormed in 
vain the year before, though now more strongly 
built of logs and earth, was not defended by the 
French, and Amherst's army encamped under its 
edge for shelter from the cannon of the fort. The 
first night after the English arrived Burlamaque 
secretly retired from Ticonderoga, with most of his 
army, leaving an officer named Hebecourt with 
four hundred men to keep up a show of resistance 
and detain the English before Ticonderoga as long 
as possible. For four days Hebecourt kept up a 


heavy cannonade upon the besieging army, and 
when Amherst's batteries were erected and about to- 
open fire upon the walls of Ticonderoga the garrison 
suddenly withdrew under cover of the night. At 
ten o'clock that night three deserters came to the 
English camp with news that the French were 
making off in boats and had left a slow match burn- 
ing in their powder magazine. It was in vain for 
Amherst to offer a high reward in gold to the man 
of them who would lead the way to cut the match, 
such a feat being beyond the courage of a deserter, 
and an hour later there was a tremendous explo- 
sion which destroyed, however, only one bastion 
and the barracks of the fort. While there was still 
danger of a further explosion an English sergeant 
risked his life to haul down the French flag that 
English colors might float a few hours sooner over 
the walls of Ticonderoga. 

The retreating French garrison repaired to Crown 
Point, and spent three days there, after which they 
blew up the fort and retired to the Richelieu River, 
the entrance to which was protected by a French 
squadron, consisting of a schooner and three smaller 
craft, then sailing these waters. Amherst advanced 
to Crown Point. He was expected to push on into 
Canada to the aid of Wolfe, but he was stopped at 
this point by the necessity for a squadron to oppose to 
that of the French. The captured French saw mill at 
Ticonderoga was set to sawing timbers and boards 
for vessels, but it often broke down under the 
unwonted stress of work, and the remainder of the 
summer was more than spent in the labor of build- 


ing a brigantine, a floating battery and a sloop. 
Amherst, who was famous for fort building and 
scattered works of defense wherever he went, occu- 
pied the time in erecting a fine stone fort at Crown 
Point at a cost of fifty thousand dollars, besides 
which he cut a road across the present state of 
Vermont from Lake Champlain to the Connecticut 
River, widened the road from Crown Point to Ticon- 
deroga and explored Otter Creek. 


It was the eleventh of October, and about a month 
after the capture of Quebec, when Amherst's army 
at length advanced in the rear of the hastily built 
fleet to the attack upon Montreal, by way of the 
Richelieu River. The floating army was struck by 
a squall and forced into Ligonier, or Willsborough 
Bay, where it remained for four days, while a 
terrific north wind blew and torrents of rain fell. 
A frost and south wind which followed were 
speedily succeeded by a second blast from the 
north, and Amherst gave over the undertaking in 
discouragement and returned to Crown Point and 
the more congenial occupation of fort building. 

In the next August, 1760, General Haviland ad- 
vanced through Lake Champlain with three thous- 
sand men to aid in a combined attack upon Montreal 
and the remnant of Canada which still held out. 
Haviland laid siege to the French post on Isle-aux- 
Nois in the Richelieu. The English, with the 
aid of the famous scout Rogers, ran aground or 
captured the small French squadron in this river, 
and the French abandoned the island and retired to 


Montreal, followed by Haviland, who combined 
with other English forces, ascending the St. Law- 
rence from Quebec and descending it from Oswego, 
in an attack on Montreal, which, being unable to 
resist cannon, speedily surrendered. 

Sir William Johnson, the gentleman, trader, 
Indian agent, soldier, colonial official and baronet, 
who lived on the Mohawk with a family of half- 
breed children in a mansion, swarmed over by his 
Indian friends, had received a wound at the battle 
of Lake George, from which the ball had not been 
removed and from which he often suffered. In 
1767 he had an illness from this cause, and his 
Mohawk neighbors told him of the value of a certain 
medicinal spring which they themselves visited in 
like case. Johnson resolved to try its waters, and 
taking Indian guides with him he traveled by water 
to Schenectady, and was carried from this point 
through the woods on a litter to Ballston Lake, 
where a pioneer Irishman had built his solitary 
log cabin. From this point the party followed an 
Indian trail which ran for some distance along the 
shore of Saratoga Lake to High Rock Spring. His 
Indian guides built a bark cabin near the spring, 
and here Sir William spent four days drinking of 
and bathing in the water. At the end of this time 
the wilderness baronet was so far recovered as to be 
able to walk part of the way to his boat at Schenec- 
tady. Sir William Johnson may be said to have 
been the discoverer of Saratoga Springs, as the 
French officer's knowledge of them was lost to all 


but Johnson, who heard of his visit through the 
Indians. The baronet trader recommended these 
waters to others and caused them to be analyzed. 

The pioneer of Saratoga Springs was one Dirk 
Schouten, a Dutchman, who, in 1773, came from the 
Hudson River to the eastern shore of Saratoga Lake, 
which he crossed in a canoe and ascended the Kaya- 
deroseras Creek two miles, and then followed an 
Indian trail to High Rock Spring. He made a 
clearing and began building a log cabin on high 
ground somewhat west of the spring. There was 
then an encampment of Indians near the spring, 
and having quarreled with these people Dirk was 
driven from the region before his cabin had been 
finished. The next summer came John Arnold with 
a family of small children to enlarge and live in the 
Schouten cabin. The fame of the spring had spread, 
and the first hardy visitors began to find their way 
in to drink the water, getting what accommodations 
they could at the Arnold cabin, and frequently 
sleeping in hammocks swung from trees for fear of 
the rattlesnakes which then abounded in the rocky 
ledges near at hand. Wolves howled at night and 
bears and deer drank from the brook. After two 
years Arnold, with the restlessness of a frontiers- 
man, moved away, and a man named Norton suc- 
ceeded to his vacant log cabin. He in turn was 
driven away by the approach of Burgoyne's invading 
army, which set all the inhabitants of this region 
flying like leaves before a storm. 



During the fifteen years' interval between the last 
French war and that of the Revolution settlers 
began to be scattered more or less sparsely through 
the valleys of the Upper Hudson and Lake Cham- 
plain. Along the whole extent of the latter body 
of water were some twenty families, and at Skenes- 
borough, now Whitehall, Major Philip Skene, an 
English officer of the French war, had planted a 
settlement of soldiers, built mills, a stone house and 
barracks. He owned vast quantities of land in this 
region, and looked forward to the government of 
the then disputed territory of Vermont. It wa& 
thought that this soldier settlement at the southern 
end of the Champlain Valley would prove a barrier 
against invasion. No one imagined that the next 
formidable inroad would be that of an English and 
not a French army, and that the founder of Skenes- 
borough was destined to play the part of an invader 
rather than that of a defender. During these years- 
of peace Crown Point, which was mostly destroyed 
by an explosion in 1773, boasted a garrison of 
twelve while Ticonderoga had one of forty-eight 
men, commanded by a certain Captain Delaplace. 
The gate of the latter fort stood open and a farmer's 
boy named Nathan Beman often crossed from the 
eastern shore of the lake to play on the parade 
ground with the children of the soldiers. 

With the outbreak of the war of the Revolution 
these slumbering northern posts became suddenly 
of vast importance. Soon after the battle of Lex- 
ington a volunteer party composed mostly of Green. 


Mountain boys, commanded by Ethan Allen, and 
without any particular authority hastened to the 
surprise of Ticonderoga. After a forced march 
these two hundred and thirty men reached in the 
night the eastern shore of Lake Champlain, opposite 
the fort. Here the boy Nathan Beman lived, and 
securing him as a guide Ethan Allen crossed the 
water with eighty-three men, all that he could 
crowd at one time into the boats at hand. The 
dawn of May tenth, 1775, was at hand, and all 
depended on a surprise. Without waiting for the 
return of the boats with the rest of his men Ethan 
Allen marched to the gate of the fort. The sentinel 
snapped his gun at the invaders, but from long 
disuse it failed to go off, and he hastily retreated 
to the interior of the fort and took refuge under a 
bomb proof. The Green Mountain boys followed 
fast on his heels, and Allen was soon forming his 
men on the parade grounds, facing the barracks on 
either hand. Three huzzas were given to wake the 
sleeping garrison. Then, hitting with his sword a 
sentinel who made a pass at and slightly wounded 
one of his officers, Allen forced him to lead the way 
up a flight of steps to the second story of a barrack 
where the commandant slept. The Green Mountain 
leader thundered at the captain's door. Delaplace 
made haste to appear, breeches in hand. Allen 
called for the instant delivery of the fort. Dela- 
place asked by what authority he bemanded it. 

'"In the name of the Great Jehovah and the 
Continental Congress," said the Green Mountain 
leader, who, it has been said, had about as much 


respect for one authority as the English officer had 
for the other. 

The surrender was speedily accomplished, and 
when the remainder of the Green Mountain boys 
had arrived from the other shore they "tossed 
around the flowing bowl," as they expressed it. with 
much exultation. The spoils were more than one 
hundred and twenty cannon, besides ammunition 
and provisions. The guns were carried on sleighs 
the next winter to Boston, where they enabled Wash- 
ington to drive the enemy out of that town. 

The capture of Ticonderoga was followed by that 
of Crown Point, which fell without a blow at the 
summons of Seth Warner, who appeared before it 
with a detachment of Green Mountain boys on the. 
following day. To secure command of the lake it 
was, however, necessary to reduce the English fleet, 
which in these waters consisted of one sloop of war. 
The enterprise fell to the part of Benedict Arnold, 
who, much to his chagrin, had joined the expedition 
too late to command at the fall of Ticonderoga, and 
who now came to the front as the only man of the 
party who knew anything of the management of 
vessels Skenesborough, or Whitehall, had mean- 
while fallen into the hands of the invaders. Skene 
being absent in England. Arnold manned and 
armed the schooner which had belonged to Skene and 
set off down the lake with a brisk south wind. He 
took the garrison of twelve men at St. Johns by 
surprise, and taking possession of the English vessel 
was soon on his way back up the lake with a favor- 


ing north wind. This was another occasion for 
tossing around the flowing bowl. 


The easy conquest of Lake Champlain suggested 
the advisability of securing Canada to prevent the 
English government from using it as a base of 
supplies for an attack upon the northern colonies. 
An army once more passed through Saratoga in 1775 
and gathered upon Lake Champlain, this time an 
ill-equipped crowd of venturesome Americans, so 
undisciplined as to confound freedom with personal 
independance of command. The illness of General 
Schuyler left the command to Montgomery, who, 
failing for lack of heavy cannon to make a break in 
the walls of St. Johns, now strongly garrisoned by 
the English, succeeded nevertheless in passing it 
and capturing Fort Chambly above, and was soon 
in possession of Montreal. Montgomery marched to 
the midwinter siege of Quebec, where he fell, and 
spring found the ill-disciplined little American 
army in lack of everything and likely to be driven 
from Canada by the arrival of a force from England. 

Benjamin Franklin, Samuel Chase and Charles 
Carroll, of Carrollton, were appointed commissioners 
to go to Canada and inquire into the state of the 
American army there. They ascended the Hudson 
in a sloop to Albany, where they were entertained 
by Schuyler, his wife and his two "lively black- 
eyed daughters, Betsey and Peggy." The Schuyler 
family accompanied the gentlemen to their country 
home at the river-side village of Saratoga in the 


only vehicle of the day in this region a springless 
farm wagon. The roads were very bad, and Frank- 
lin, who was over seventy years old and suffering 
from an attack of the gout, was so fatigued by the 
ride as to have in jest bidden his friends a last fare- 
well in the letters which he wrote in Saratoga. 

A week's rest at Saratoga enabled Franklin to 
pursue his journey to Lake George, where the 
commissioners embarked in a flat-bottomed batteau 
with a blanket hoisted for a sail. This primitive 
craft was drawn across to Lake Champlain by oxen. 
The party landed for meals at some island or point 
to boil tea, and so with a favoring wind the batteau 
made its leisurely way through the great northern 
lake. Having reached Canada the commissioners 
found the case of the American army a hopeless 
one, and advising its retreat returned through Lake 
Champlain in the blanket rigged boat. 


In the summer of 1776 the American army of 
invasion accordingly retreated through Lake Cham- 
plain, first to Crown Point, then to Ticonderoga. 
Arnold, who was one of its officers, caused the 
frame of a schooner building at St. Johns to be 
carried away piecemeal, and when this vessel was 
finished and added to the others already on Lake 
Champlain the Americans possessed a small 
squadron with which to protect themselves from 
the advance of the English. The enemy at once set 
seven hundred men at work to build a three-masted 
ship, which was put together in twenty-eight days 


and armed with sixteen guns. To the ship were 
added, two schooners, a thunderer, or flat-bottomed 
vessel, mounted with heavy guns, and a number of 
gunboats armed with one cannon each. These 
vessels were manned with seven hundred experi- 
enced seamen from English vessels of war. To 
oppose this fleet the Americans had only the new 
schooner, two sloops, three galleys, and a smaller 
number of gunboats, manned with unskilled lands- 

While the English fleet was building Arnold had 
had the lake to himself, and advanced at one time 
to the neighborhood of Rouses Point. When at 
length the English approached he anchored across 
the narrow channel between Valcour's Island and 
the western shore. In the early morning of October 
eleventh, 1776, the English vessels passed Cumber- 
land Head. The English squadron was commanded 
by Captain Pringle in the Inflexible. The American 
schooner Royal Savage was caught outside of the 
American line in the broad lake and was chased by 
the English ship Carleton. In tacking to get back 
into line the American vessel ran aground, and her 
men were forced to abandon her and seek safety on 
Valcour's Island. The English fleet had now 
rounded the southern point of this island and lay 
between Arnold and retreat. The English gunboats 
drew together in a cluster to fire on the escaping 
crew of the Royal Savage. Four American vessels 
which had meanwhile got under way to defend 
the grounded schooner fired with a good deal of 
effect into the cluster of English gunboats, which 


were then ordered to form in line across the channel 
between Valcour's Island and the shore and give 
battle. Only one of the English vessels was able to 
get into the narrow channel to take part in the 
combat, and here she at once became such a target 
for Arnold's guns that after about an hour's fighting 
she was towed out, leaving the gunboats to continue 
the battle alone. Arnold fought savagely, pointing 
nearly all the cannon on board the Congress himself 
for want of an experienced gunner. In the struggle 
this little vessel was hulled twelve times and 
received seven shots between wind and water, her 
main mast was cut to pieces and many of her crew 
were killed. An American galley, named the 
Washington, was also badly shattered; one gunboat 
was sunk, and another lost all of her officers but the 
captain. The English lost but one gunboat and 
twenty men, these small craft being difficult to aim 
at with precision. About five o'clock the English 
drew off and anchored in a line south of the Ameri- 
can fleet with the intention of completing its 
destruction on the following day. 

Arnold saw that his position was a hopeless one, 
the English being greatly superior to him in skill 
and in the size and number of their cannon. The 
English gunboats which at first lay in a line between 
the larger vessels were allowed to retire for shelter 
to a bay near at hand. The night was cloudy, and 
Arnold cautiously got under way and sailed his 
vessels one by one through the enemy's line without 
discovery. This was a masterly feat, and greatly 
surprised the English, who awoke the next morning 


to find their prey escaped. They at once gave 
chase. Unfortunately the Americans were obliged 
to stop for half a day at Schuyler's Isiand to mend 
sails and stop leaks. A headwind detained both 
squadrons, the gunboats being unable to sail to 
windward, but on the morning of October thirteenth 
the English hove in sight of the Americans. By 
noon Arnold's ships lay in a narrow part of the lake 
where they were retarded by a south wind while the 
English in more open water got a breeze from the 
northeast which brought them within range. The 
Inflexible, the Maria and the Carleton opened fire on 
the American galleys, Congress and Washington, 
which, together with some gunboats, brought up 
the rear of the retreating American vessels. A few 
close broadsides compelled the Washington to strike, 
and Arnold in the disabled Congress was left to 
defend the rear of his squadron. Three ships armed 
with forty-four cannon poured their fire into the 
devoted little vessel, but Arnold contrived to hold 
out for four hours. At the end of that time, when 
the Congress was almost a total wreck and he was 
surrounded by seven sail of the enemy, he ran her 
and four gunboats aground in a small creek on the 
eastern shore about ten miles above Crown Point, 
set them all on fire and ordered his men to wade out 
into the water and defend the burning vessels with 
musketry against boarding parties in small boats. 
When they had burned to the water's edge he 
retreated through the woods to Ticonderoga. 

By this gallant struggle Arnold saved six sail of 
the American fleet, preserved Ticonderoga from at- 

tack for that year and very much raised the reputa- 
tion of the Americans for resolution. 


It was inevitable that England should choose the 
Champlain and Mohawk valleys for an attack upon 
the rear and center of the American colonies and 
that her course should be directed from the north 
and west toward the Saratoga triangle there to make 
a junction of the two forces for the descent of the 
Hudson and the co-operation with an ascending force 
Elsewhere she could operate only from the coast, 
here she might hope to cut the rebellious provinces 
in two, capture their main inland thoroughfare, the 
Hudson, cut off New England and leave her exposed 
to be reduced from the rear. 

In the winter of 1776 General Burgoyne was seen 
walking in Hyde Park with the king of England. 
Burgoyne was a fashionable gentleman who had in 
early life made a runaway match with the daughter 
of a noble family and received rich promotions in 
consequence ; he was also a dashing soldier and had 
a ready though florid pen with which he afterward 
wrote some successful plays. He had served under 
Sir Guy Carleton the preceding year in Canada and 
having seen the Americans flee at the approach of 
the English troops thought but little of their cour- 
age and is said to have boasted that he could march 
through all of the American colonies with five 
thousand men. It was agreed in England between 
the king and the minister, Germaine, that Burgoyne 
should have the chief command of an army which 

was to descend the Champlain valley and that of the 
upper Hudson to Saratoga where it was to be joined 
by an invading force under a partisan leader, St. 
Leger, after which it was to move upon Albany 
while General Howe sailed up the Hudson from 
New York to a junction with Burgoyne which was 
to insure the destruction of American independence. 


Burgoyne's well-appointed army amounted to be- 
tween eight and ten thousand men and was com- 
posed of English and German regular troops, Can- 
adian militia, Indians, and the beginnings of some 
royal American regiments to be filled up in northern 
New York by loyalist colonists who it was thought 
would leave off their timorous ways and join the 
English standard when put in heart by the appear- 
ance of a conquering army. Burgoyne was pro- 
vided with an extensive park of artillery, for Ameri- 
cans had already shown great skill in throwing up 
breastworks with the utmost rapidity and it had 
been found that they were disposed to fight from 
behind them most abominably well. 

The lesson that Lord Howe had taught of light 
equipment for an inland expedition had been forgot- 
ten. Officers were encumbered with baggage, the 
army was followed by nearly three hundred women, 
trains of beef cattle were never wanting and the 
general's table during the whole campaign did not 
lack the wines and other delicacies needed for gay 
nightly feasts. Some young gentlemen are even 
said to have carried fishing tackle, intent, like true 
Englishmen, on the sports of a new country. 


Never had an army a more brilliant array of offi- 
cers. There were lords, baronets and viscounts, a 
German baron, members of the House of Commons, 
sons of great families who afterward succeeded ta 
titles, and no less than thirty young men who became 
in the future, either generals or admirals. So many 
foreigners of distinction were never bent upon visit- 
ing the Lake Champlain and Saratoga region in a 


It was the latter part of June, 1777, that Bur 
goyne's brilliant army made the voyage up Lake 
Champlain, advancing from seventeen to twenty 
miles in a day and camping at night both on the west- 
ern and eastern shores. It was ideal summer weather 
and the lake was placidly beautiful. Though floating^ 
the army's order of advance was as perfect as on 
land. The Indians in birch bark canoes, containing 
from twenty to thirty each, led the van, then came 
the advanced corps and gunboats in regular line, 
followed by the vessels Royal George and Inflexible, 
towing booms, next, the brigs and sloops of the Eng- 
lish squadron, the generals and their suites occupy- 
ing pinnaces, and after them the second and the 
German battalions, the rear being brought up by 
camp followers of all sorts. The main army en- 
camped at Cumberland Head and at the Bouquet 
River. The men caught salmon in the streams and 
at'one place killed enough, of the immense flocks of 
wild pigeons which then flew at certain seasons 
through the Champlain Valley, to feed all of the ten 
thousand people who in some capacity or other 


accompanied the army. One young officer sketched 
the mountain view at Isle LaMotte and all was like 
a grand pleasure excursion. 

At the Bouquet River or Willsborough, Burgoyne 
treated the Indians to a war feast and held a council 
in which he lectured them to his own satisfaction 
on humanity in warfare. On the thirtieth of June 
the army reached Crown Point and encamped both 
here and at Chimney Point opposite, the vessels of 
war lying between. Here Burgoyne issued a high- 
s ounding address to the inhabitants of the country 
he was about to overrun, reproaching them for their 
disloyalty and threatening them with the Indians. 
He also gave out at this place his famous general 
orders in which he made the astonishing announce- 

"This army must not retreat." 

It was the first day of July when the English 
proceeded to the siege of Ticonderoga, boats and 
vessels literally covering the water in this narrow 
portion of the lake. Bands were playing, drums 
beating, flags flying and spirits were high. The 
destination of the army beyond Ticonderoga was a 
secret to all except the commanding officers but 
there was a shrewd suspicion afloat that Christinas 
dinners were to be eaten in Albany. 


An American army about four thousand in num- 
ber and commanded by General St. Clair lay at 
Ticonderoga. Upon this army the young nation 
depended solely for defense from the north. The 
old French position at Ticonderoga had a false repu- 


tation for strength due to the stubborn resistance 
made here by Montcalm during the last French war. 
The forts of that war were in fact out of date, and 
it was soon to be found that they were all com- 
manded by higher ground within range of the more 
powerful cannon now to be brought against them. 
This, however, was not as yet suspected and a stub- 
born resistance was expected from the garrison of 
Ticonderoga in case of an invasion. 

The old French fort itself was easily liable to be 
invested and cut off in case of a siege and it was too 
small and crowded with barracks to accommodate 
the American army in case it w r ere driven from its 
outer w r orks and forced to take refuge within the 
walls of the fort. Because of these disadvantages 
Mount Independence on the other side of the nar- 
row strip of w ? ater at this point had been fortified 
and a floating bridge w T as built between the two 
posts which w T as defended on the north by a boom of 
logs attached together with iron chains and on the 
south by a few vessels of the American squadron. 
Ticonderoga had neither sufficient men to defend 
well its extensive outworks nor were the latter en- 
tirely finished. St. Clair meant, however, in case 
of a siege to make a stand at Ticonderoga as long as 
possible and then to retreat to Mount Independence 
where he w T ould be in connection with the eastern 
shore and a possibility of retreat as a last resort. 

The descent of Burgoyne's army was a surprise to 
the garrison of Ticonderaga as it was to the country 
generally. St. Clair had been led to believe that 
most of the forces in Canada had been drawn away 


for a seaboard attack on the United States and that 
little more than a feint would this year be made in 
the Champlain Valley. Even when American scouts 
spied from a distance English ships of war anchored 
at Split Rock and later at Crown Point, the invading 
force was not believed to be large. From the time 
the English army reached Crown Point the Indians 
so infested the woods in their hunt for scalps that 
scouting to any purpose became impossible and it 
was not until Burgoyne had well-nigh drawn his 
net around Ticonderoga that St. Clair learned from 
a prisoner the great strength of the army that had 
come against him. 

On the first of July English gunboats were seen 
off Three-Mile point and there was a skirmish be- 
tween the Indians and an American scouting party. 
The next day General Fraser with the advance 
guard of the English army took possession of some 
high ground, formerly an entrenched camp which 
commanded a part of the American lines outside of 
the fort and was consequently named Mount Hope. 
An American guard in a block house at the Lake 
George landing repulsed an attack from the enemy 
about the same time but as a block house could not 
make a stand against cannon St. Clair withdrew its 
garrison which retired after setting fire to the block 
house and the Ticonderoga sawmills. Burgoyne 
sent men to cut off the retreat of these men but 
without success. 

These movements cut off the communication be- 
tween Lake George and Ticonderoga. On the fol- 
lowing day the German forces under General Ried- 
esel extended their camp on the eastern shore of 
Lake Champlain to the neighborhood of Mount In- 


dependence and began cutting a road to the narrow 
neck of land which connected this post with the 
main land. When the enemy should have occupied 
this neck, the Americans would be left only one 
avenue of retreat, that through the southern arm of 
Lake Champlain toward Whitehall. This last re- 
sort was soon to be threatened for while the English 
army, in spite of a lively cannonade from the fort, 
proceeded to camp in such a way as to nearly sur- 
round Ticonderoga, an English lieutenant was sent 
to reconnoiter Sugar Loaf Hill on a point of land 
south of the Lake George outlet. He climbed this 
rough peak and found that it so completely over- 
looked both Ticonderoga and Mount Independence 
that the men in these posts could be counted while 
at the same time it commanded the American ship- 
ping and the bridge of communication between the 
two forts. There had been some discussion among 
the Americans the year before about occupying this 
hill but it seems to have been decided by those in 
authority to have been out of range. The English, 
however, at once took possession of it, christening 
it Mount Defiance and hastened to cut a road to its 
summit on the day and night of the fourth of July. 
When day broke on the morning of the fifth St. 
Clair found the English looking down upon him 
from Mount Defiance and preparing to build a bat- 
tery. He saw at once that all hope of making a 
stand to any purpose was over, for as soon as the 
battery should be in a state to open fire the forts 
and shipping must not only be destroyed but the 
last chance for retreat cut off. The dilemma was a 


hard one for St. Clair, who to preserve his army 
must disgrace himself in the eyes of the public by 
flying from the enemy without striking a blow or 
stand the seige with the certainty of losing a force 
much needed for the defence of the country below. 
St. Clair held a council of war in the morning and 
in the afternoon he sent for his quartermaster and 
told him that an evacuation had been determined 

"Have you had any orders from General Schuy- 
ler ?" the quartermaster ventured to ask. 
St. Clair replied that he had not. 
"I am extremely sorry for it," said the quarter- 
master significantly. 

"I know well what you mean," said St. Clair, 
and I have seriously considered the consequences of 
the step I am taking. If I remain here I will save 
my character and lose the army. If I retreat I will 
save the army and lose my character, which I am 
determined to sacrifice to the cause in which I am 

The nights are at their shortest at this season of 
the year and the moon shone on that of July fifth, the 
last on which the American army might hope to 
escape from the trap which was being laid about it, 
for General Phillips of the English army, famous for 
having saved the day at the battle of Minden at the 
expense of twenty canes broken over the backs of 
artillery horses, had urged on the work of dragging 
cannon up Mount Defiance to such purpose that a 
battery would be ready to open fire when day broke. 
Everything must therefore be done with the 


greatest expedition. Early in the evening the sick, 
the women and some baggage and stores were put 
aboard six armed galleys under guard of Colonel 
Long and five hundred men and sent through the 
southern arm of Lake Champlain toward Whitehall, 
General St. Clair intended to take with the main 
body of the army a roundabout route by land 
through Castleton, Vermont, to the same place. 
During the hurry and confusion of hasty prepara- 
tions two eighteen pound cannon kept up a steady 
fire on the English shipping that the enemy might 
suspect nothing. It was two o'clock when St. 
Clair and the main army marched across the bridge 
to Mount Independence. About this time the head- 
quarters of General Roche DeFermoy, a foreign offi- 
cer commanding at Mount Independence, were set 
on fire. The blaze lighted up the whole of the 
American works and as it must reveal all their 
movements to the enemy greatly alarmed the men 
whose line of march at this time extended from the 
foot of Mount Independence to the Castleton road 
outside of the fort. They fell into confusion in their 
eagerness to be off and St. Clair was obliged to halt 
and form the line again. It was almost four o'clock 
in the morning when the rear of the American army 
got out of the fort. 

The evacuation of Ticonderoga was a complete 
surprise to the English. When the alarm was given 
General Fraser at once advanced from his camp, at 
Mount Hope to occupy the fort, but the Americans 
had destroyed the bridge at this point and posted 
loaded cannon to defend it. The three or four men, 


however, who had been left behind to touch off the 
guns as the approach of the enemy had found a cask 
of Maderia wine and were lying drunk in the fort. 
As soon as the bridge could be sufficiently repaired 
Fraser marched into Ticonderoga, hoisted the Brit- 
ish colors, and crossing to Mount Independence 
hastened in pursuit of General St. Clair followed by 
General Riedesel and his German troops. 

The inglorious fall of Ticonderoga was a bitter 
disappointment to all Americans and both General 
St. Clair and General Schuyler who was the chief in 
command in the north, lost character by it and 
were only freed from blame some time after at their 
trials before a court martial. The English were 
greatly elated at the easy conquest of a post made 
famous in Europe by the struggles of the French 
war. In England the king was wildly exultant, 
rushing to tell the queen that he had beaten all the 


The English gave chase all the day of the sixth of 
July which was very hot. Both armies were com- 
pelled to stop for rest at nightfall. General St. 
Clair encamped at Castleton and sent orders to the 
officers of his rear guard commanded by Colonels 
Francis, Hale and Warner, to advance within two 
miles of his army before encamping. They however, 
stopped at Hubbardtown, six miles behind the main 
army. The pursuing English troops under Fraser 
took up their march about daybreak on the morning 
of the seventh of July and surprised the Americans 
at Hubbardtown at their breakfast. The latter were 


hastily formed into line by their brave officers 
Francis and Warner, Colonel Hale failing to make a 
stand. Both English and Americans made a rush 
for commanding ground to the west of the encamp- 
ment and met in the attempt. The Americans were 
driven back upon the spot where they had encamped, 
fighting fiercely in frontier fashion from behind logs 
and trees. The English drove them on and got be- 
tween them and retreat to the main army at Castle- 
ton. The Americans rallied and made a stand. 
Again the English drove them in and they attempted 
to retreat across the Pittsford Mountains but the 
English getting in their rear they once more gave 
battle and were likely to have gained the day when 
the arrival of Riedesel's Germans, singing their 
national hymn, decided the struggle in favor of the 
English. Many Americans escaped through the 

Though the English were victorious at Hubbard- 
ton they were so far checked by the fierce resistance 
of the Americans as to pursue St. Clair's retreating 
army no farther. The general hearing that Bur- 
goyne was advancing upon Whitehall struck 
through the woods from Castleton and after a toil- 
some and famished march reached Fort Edward in 
safety with the main body of his troops which under 
General Schuyler was to form the nucleus of the 
northern army of defence. When St. Clair had left 
Castleton Riedesel occupied it for about three weeks 
at first to protect the English wounded which were 
being laboriously carried in hand barrows back to 
Ticonderoga. This position of the German wing of 


the army Burgoyne intended also as a kind of a 
threat thrown out toward New England, and he be- 
lieved it would have the good effect of keeping the 
men of that region at home. 


After breaking the American boom by a well-di- 
rected cannon shot and hewing asunder the bridge 
which connected Ticonderoga with Mount Inde- 
pendence. Burgoyne, on the morning of the Ameri- 
can retreat, sailed up the southern arm of Lake 
Champlain in pursuit of the flying vessels loaded 
with baggage, the women and the sick under the 
guard of Colonel Long. He overtook the rear of 
this retreating portion of the American army near 
Skenesborough, now Whitehall. A smart action 
followed in which two American galleys were cap- 
tured. The others reached Whitehall where they 
were they were blown up by the retreating Ameri- 
cans, who also set fire to the storehouses, mills and 
barracks here. This fire spread to the neighboring 
forests and mountains making a sight grand and 
novel to the English. Burgoyne established his 
headquarters at Skenesborough House, the mansion 
of Philip Skene who accompanied him thus retaking 
his home by invasion. 


The English Colonel Hill with a regiment of some- 
thing over five hundred veteran soldiers was sent in 
pursuit of Colonel Long who commanded about the 
same number of men, some of whom were invalids 
just recovering from an epidemic of the measles 
which had raged in St. Clair's army. Colonel Hill 


overtook and captured some boatloads of women 
and the sick making their way up Wood Creek* 
When he arrived within a half a mile of Fort Anne, 
being falsely informed that the Americans had been 
reinforced and were strougly entrenched, he halted 
and sent to Burgoyne for aid. The Americans, how- 
ever, did not wait for an attaek but sallied out from 
Fort Anne on the eighth of July. Long attacked 
the English in front with a portion of his men while 
the remainder under Colonel VanRennselear crossed 
the creek and sought to gain the English rear, pour- 
ing down upon them so hot a fire as to force them 
to push up a hill for fear of being surrounded. 
Here the Americans assaulted them again most 
savagely, fighting for two hours. When their am- 
munition was exhausted and the near approach of the 
English reinforcements announced by the whoops of 
proceeding Indians, the Americans withdrew but 
not' without first burning Fort Anne. Though the 
English claimed a victory they returned to White- 
hall leaving the Americans free to reoccupy Fort 
Anne which they did five days later and worked 
their will about this region for some time after very 
much to the damage of the roads through which 
Burgoyne expected to pass in his advance upon the 

The battle of Fort Anne was a most spirited strug- 
gle on the part of a handful of hard pressed men 
and did honor to American courage. Here and at 
Hubbarton the English were obliged to admit that 
Americans were no poltroons and a few were shrewd 
enough to see that the invading army had gained 


nothing but "honor" of the most barren sort, while 
these two checks delayed the English and gave the 
Americans what they most needed, time to recover 
from the loss of Ticonderoga. Still success seemed 
to be with the English and many royalists and Indi. 
ans were encouraged to flock to Burgoyne's stand- 


They were none too good in those days, the rude 
forest-shaded tracks over rocks and stumps and end- 
less marshes known as roads, and Major Skene, the 
founder of Whitehall, is credited with having ad- 
vised Burgoyne to proceed by Fort Anne instead of 
. by Lake George against Fort Edward in order that a 
new and improved military road might be left be- 
hind by the conquering army for his future use. 
Burgoyne seems to have chosen this route rather 
than retire to Ticonderoga to descend by way of 
Lake George largely because he had set for himself 
the rule that a retreat must not be made. He feared 
that a retrograde movement of any sort might put 
him in a ridiculous position with his men. 

General Schuyler at Fort Edward fervently wished 
for only a few day's time which would, he believed, 
enable him to prevent the enemy's reaching Albany 
that year. The English general's dislike for back- 
ward movements, the necessarily slow work of mov- 
ing forward stores and a large park of artillery and 
the checks at Hubbardton and Fort Anne gave him 
the time he wished for. While the English were 
firing feudejoye at Ticonderoga, at Whitehall and 
at Castleton in honor of their successes he was en- 


gaged in saving the stores at the head of Lake 
George and in obstructing the navigation of Wood 
Creek by which heavy articles were then carried 
some distance toward Fort Edward. He also caused 
the road to be barricaded by felling the forests 
across it and destroying what bridges existed. To 
make Burgoyne's progress more difficult he ordered 
all wagons, horses and cattle to be driven off and 
fodder and grain to be destroyed. 


The Americans in the north were deeply disheart- 
ened, many of the inhabitants of this part of the 
country wavered toward the English cause, and 
even the soldiers had such a superstitious terror of 
Indians that on Burgoyne's descent of the Hudson it 
was with difficulty that small bodies of men could 
be persuaded to make a stand and skirmish with the 
savages. Schuyler's troops had been robbed at a 
blow by the sudden capture of Ticonderoga, of artil- 
lery, tents, kettles, tools, ammunition, blankets, 
everything, even to courage for after Burgoyne be- 
gan at length to advance upon Fort Edward num- 
bers of the American army deserted. Schuyler lay 
now at Fort Edward with something over four 
thousand men forced to sleep under dripping brush 
in incessant rain. Meanwhile he. as well as St. Clair, 
were blamed with the loss of Ticonderoga and the 
most ridiculous stories were believed about them. 
The rumor was circulated that they were traitors 
and had been bribed to give up this post without 
a blow, receiving their reward in silver bullets 
which were shot into the works at Ticonderoga and 


which St. Clair had caused to be picked up and for- 
warded to Schuyler. 

In spite of the immense difficulty of his position 
at this time Schuyler never for a moment despaired, 
but strove to put heart into his alarmed countrymen 
who appealed to him from the Mohawk country now 
also threatened with invasion. He urged them in 
stirring words to exert themselves, to prove them- 
selves men by showing no signs of fear and predicted 
that they would not only save their country but 
gain immortal honor. When all were desponding 
he reminded the people that once before an army 
under Montcalm had been on the southern side of 
Lake George and all had without reason despaired 
almost to abandoning the upper Hudson without a 
blow. He believed and declared that Burgoyne 
would run himself into great danger by descending 
the Hudson. 


Burgoyne remained nearly three weeks at White- 
hall waiting to bring forward stores for his army, 
clearing Wood Creek for navigation, cutting away 
obstructions in the Fort Edward road and building 
something like three miles of corduroy over marshy 
road bed. It was the twenty-third of July when 
his van reached Fort Anne. Burgoyne made Fort 
Anne his headquarters while his advanced troops 
moved upon Fort Edward five days later. As the 
English approached Schuyler abandoned this post, 
which like other forts of the French war, was ut- 
terly untenable. The Americans fell down to Fort 


Miller and Moses Creek, leaving a small rear guard 
at Fort Edward until the last moment. 

The advance of the English was as usual preceded 
by hordes of Indians who scattered in all directions 
in search of plunder, of scalps and of prisoners. 
They so laid this country waste that visitors to this 
region at the close of the war were struck with the 
desolation of burned farm houses everywhere to be 
seen. The people of the country fled before the ap- 
proach of the English army though some loyalists 
lingered behind. Among these was Jane McCrea, 
the daughter of a New Jersey Presbyterian clergy- 
man. Her father being dead, she had been living 
with her brother now a soldier in the American 
army. She was, however, engaged to a young man 
named David Jones who, being a loyalist, had joined 
Burgoyne's army on its approach from Canada, and 
was an officer in one of the loyalist regiments. The 
young girl is said to have received a letter from her 
lover promising to meet her at Fort Edward and she 
was unwilling on the approrch of the English army 
to retire to Albany with her brother's family but 
went instead to the house of Mrs. McNeil, a loyalist, 
and cousin of General Fraser of the English army 
who naturally expected a warm reception from her 
relative. One of the marauding parties of Indians, 
however, fell upon Mrs. McNeill's house and drag- 
ging her and Jane out of the cellar where they had 
hastened to take refuge, carried them off prisoners. 
The Indians were pursued by a party of American 
soldiers from Fort Edward. When the pursuers 
fired the fleeing Indians threw themselves and Mrs. 


McNeil to the ground to avoid their rifle balls. The 
Indians had divided into two parties and Jane Mc- 
Crea was taken off on horseback in another direc- 
tion and Mrs. McNeil at once lost sight of her. The 
older woman reached the English army in safety 
though very angry for she was presented to her 
cousin, the general, in a sad plight, having been 
stripped by the Indians of almost every garment she 
wore. She soon afterward recognized the scalp of 
Jennie McCrea in the hands of some Indians wiio 
averred that she had been shot by the pursuing 
Americans. If there had been any reason to be- 
lieve this story the English would gladly have 
sheltered themselves from blame behind it for they 
were deeply mortified at this unfortunate occurrence. 
It has always been believed that the young girl 
was killed by one of two Indians who quarreled as 
to which was her captor. It has also long been the 
story that one of the two Indians who quarreled 
over her had been sent by her lover to bring her to 
camp that the two might be married, but this is 
doubtful. The only facts that are certain about the 
death of this unfortunate girl are that she lingered 
near the approaching army to which her lover was 
attached and that she was captured and killed by 
the Indians. Other royalists, whole families even, 
are said to have suffered the same fate, the savages 
knowing no difference between friends and foes to 
the English cause and being eager for household 
plunder which they carried off in the ticks of straw 
beds, one fellow having even been seen with a look- 
ing glass strapped upon his back. 


The death of Jane McCrea occurred on or about 
the twenty-eighth of July when the advance of the 
English army reached Sandy Hill. Burgoyne's 
headquarters were still at Fort Anne. He went at 
once to the Indian camp, called a council and rated 
the Indians soundly. These people meekly promised 
to leave off their time-honored mode of warfare but 
though the general, for policy's sake pardoned Jane 
McCrea's murderer, the Indians steadily deserted 
from that day, carrying with them their ill-gotten 
loads of plunder. 

The Americans had meanwhile found the body of 
Jane McCrea near that of Colonel VanVechten, who 
had been killed in a skirmish the same day. They 
carried them both to Moses Creek for burial. Jane 
McCrea's remains were afterward removed to Fort 
Edward and again to the Union Cemetery between 
Sandy Hill and Fort Edward where they now are. 
The story spread far and wide and was told with 
various embellishments; the unfortunate girl was 
surpassingly lovely and her hair was long, glossy 
and black as a raven's wing when in reality she 
seems to have possessed no great beauty and to have 
had red or blonde hair. Her death greatly discour- 
aged loyalists intent on joining Burgoyne's army, 
was discussed with bitterness in Parliament and 
struck a horror to American hearts that helped to- 
arouse them to a more enthusiastic and determined 


It was about the twenty-ninth of July that the ad- 
vance of the English army reached Fort Edward and 


camped on high ground near this post, the numer- 
ous camp fires making at nightfall a beautiful sight. 
The rear guard of German troops remained at Fort 
Anne until August sixth to guard the provision train 
following the army to Fort Edward. Meanwhile a 
portion of Burgoyne's force was advancing by way 
of Lake George with the cumbersome park of artil- 

Burgoyne had now reached the Hudson and was 
within fifty miles of Albany. He was informed that 
St. Leger was before Fort Stanwix at the head of 
the Mohawk valley. In order to cooperate with 
him according to the original plan it was necessary 
that he should at once move forward to the im- 
portant triangle of Saratoga, there to make a junc- 
tion with St. Leger, as he descended the Mohawk. 
Such a movement would also have the advantage of 
so fully occupying Schuyler as to prevent his send- 
ing troops to the defense of the Mohawk valley. As 
the surrounding country had been stripped bare of 
food and of the horses and wagons needed for its 
transport, it was necessary for the English to depend 
solely on supplies of flour and beef cattle brought 
by water four hundred miles from Quebec which 
was trundled and driven at great labor and with 
much waste of time over rough and hilly roads 
from Lake George in the wagons with which the 
army was but scantily provided. To carry these 
necessary supplies down the Hudson in the absence 
of a sufficient number of wagons, batteaux must be 
dragged on wheels from Lake George and were so 
damaged by the trip as to need fresh caulking at 


Fort Edward. After being loaded at this port these 
boats could float but a few miles down the river be 
fore they met an obstacle at Fort Miller Falls where 
they must be unloaded and they and their contents 
hauled around the falls to be once more launched 
and loaded afresh. 

To avoid these difficulties and the waste of 
precious time which they entailed, Burgoyne be- 
thought himself of robbing Schuyler's army of its 
stock of flour, beef, cattle and wagons gathered 
at Bennington, not far to the eastward. An expedi- 
tion for this place would also carry out a cherished 
plan of his which was to strike a blow at New Eng- 
land while it would, so Major Skene assured him. 
bring a number of loyalist recruits from the debate- 
able land of Vermont. Another advantage which 
was expected to flow from this raid would be 
the capture of a number of horses with which to 
mount the German dragoons who with their 
weighty caps, long coat tails, enormous boots and 
swords dangling to the ground, were not fitted for 
other modes of locomotion. 

On the ninth of August General Fraser with the 
van of the English army, advanced to a point op- 
posite Fort Miller to support the movement on Ben- 
nington. A German officer, Colonel Baura, with a 
body of German dragoons, and a few English rang- 
ers, loyalists and savages, amounting to over five 
hundred men, was despatched toward Bennington, 
if so clumsy a soldier as a German dragoon can be 
said ever to have been despatched anywhere. His 
march was not rendered more expeditious by the 


flour he carried and the herd of beef cattle which 
he drove with him for supplies. Baum was accom- 
panied by Skene who was to enlist the loyalist in" 
habitants of the region now known as Vermont, 
while the country was to be scoured for horses with 
which to mount the dragoons. Having secured the 
stores at Bennington Baum was to despatch them 
back to Burgoyne. after which his force having been 
transformed by mounting into cavalry, he was to take 
the main road for Albany while Burgoyne fell down 
the other side of the Hudson through Saratoga 
county toward the same goal. To be ready for the 
latter rapid movement. Burgoyne's army moved 
down the east bank of the Hudson to opposite Schuy- 
lerville and the advance troops under Fraser crossed 
the river near the mouth of the Battenkill on a 
bridge of rafts linked together with chains, and en- 
camped on Saratoga soil. The remainder of the 
army lay opposite Fort Miller where Burgoyne es- 
tablished his headquarters in the unfinished mansion 
of a Mr. Duer. 


This forward movement of Burgoyne's army and 
St. Leger's attack on the Mohawk Valley forced 
Schuyler with the American army to retreat through 
Saratoga county to the mouth of the Mohawk in 
order to resist the invasion both from the north and 
from the west. He still, however, made Stillwater 
his headquarters. 

For the English much hung on the expedition to 
Bennington. This place was then but a cluster of 
log huts and was, as Burgoyne knew, defended only 


by militia. By a lucky accident it happened, how- 
ever, that General Stark, suffering from a slight 
from Congress in regard to a matter of rank, had 
refused to leave Vermont to join Schuyler's army. 
When the invaders approached Stark gathered the 
regular troops and militia at hand and marched to 
meet Baum. This innocent foreigner having heard 
much from Skene of the loyalty of the Vermont 
people, received in a friendly manner the advances 
of a number of men who had joined him four miles 
short of Bennington and claimed to be loyalists. He 
allowed them to hang about him and camp on either 
side of his forces. 

It was the fourteenth of August when Baum fell 
in with General Stark. He at once retired to a hill, 
entrenched and sent to Burgoyne for reinforcements. 
A heavy rain prevented a battle on the following 
day but on the sixteenth Stark attacked Baum while 
the supposed royalists suddenly transformed into 
veritable Green Mountain boys, proceeded to cut off 
his retreat to the main army, The Americans as- 
saulted the German entrenchments in the face of 
two cannon, the Germans defended themselves 
bravely and a hot battle followed which lasted for 
two hours. The Americans at length captured the 
German cannon and turned them against Baum, 
who, his ammunition being now exhausted, at- 
tempted to cut his way through the Americans with 
bayonet and broadsword, but soon fell mortally 
wounded. Most of the Germans were captured, the 
fleeter footed Indians and English of the party es- 
caping. Colonel Breyman with another body of 


German troops had been sent to Baum's aid and de- 
tained by muddy roads and the heaviness of his 
troops arrived on the battlefield just too late. He 
at once attacked Stark's exhausted men who were 
reinforced, however, at a lucky moment by the regi- 
ment of Colonel Seth Warner. Breyman was beaten 
and only saved from capture by a night retreat. 
Burgoyne marched his whole army forward to the 
Battenkill opposite Saratoga to cover this retreat. 
The bridge of rafts on which General Fraser had 
crossed the Hudson had meanwhile broken away in 
the floods following the recent rains, leaving the ad- 
vance guard of the English arm in Saratoga County 
cut off from the main body on the other side of the 
river. As no Americans were at hand the men were 
got safely across in boats. 

The immediate crossing of the whole army to 
Saratoga was necessarily abandoned after the defeat 
at Bennington. The rear of Burgoyne's army fell 
back to Fort Edward that connections might be 
kept up with Canada and food by way of Lake 
George and Lake Champlain. Thus early was Bur- 
goyne forced to make a retrograde movement which 
was however somewhat concealed by the advance of 
his own headquarters from Fort Miller to Battenkill 
opposite old Saratoga, and from this time he dated 
his letters from "Near Saratoga." 

The success at Bennington was the first turn of 
the tide for the Americans. They lost their earlier 
awe of the Indians, of Germans and of English regu- 
lars, they forgot the disheartenment which had fol- 
lowed the fall of Ticonderoga and they flocked to 

Schuyler's standard for the defence of their country. 


Notwithstandihg the threatening advance of a 
portion of Burgoyne's army to the Saratoga bank of 
the river and in spite of the advice of the timid, 
Schuyler detached Arnold from his still weak army 
to raise the siege of Fort Stanwix on the Mohawk. 
The mere exaggerated rumor of Arnold's approach 
was sufficient for the half -Indian force beleaguering 
this post and they departed in the utmost haste. A 
courier following an old Indian route by Saratoga 
Lake and across the rive* at Glens Falls brought the 
news to General Burgoyne of this misfortune. 

The English were now beaten back on the right 
and on the left. When the prospect of the Ameri- 
can cause seemed at length more hopeful Schuyler, 
who had borne the burden of misfortune with so 
much spirit, was replaced by General Gates. There 
was much local feeling at this time and Schuyler 
was unpopular with the New England soldiers who 
disliked "Yorkers," while many people had not yet 
got rid of suspicions of Schuyler which such stories 
as that of the silver bullets gave rise to. Gates had 
been a regular English officer and was supposed to 
be more experienced in military matters. 

The American army was relieved by the retreat of 
St. Leger of the necessity for opposing an invasion 
from the Mohawk as well as from the upper Hudson 
and advanced through Saratoga County to Bemis 
Heights beyond Stillwater. This spot was chosen 
by the Polish engineer, Kosciusko, for the reason 
that the river valley is suddenly narrowed here to a 


few rods in width by the approach of the river hills 
to the stream. It would be easier to defend this 
narrow pass against the advance of the English upon 
Albany, than to check them in more open ground. 

Failing to get in the valley of the upper Hudson 
any supplies other than a few sheep and horses 
brought in by wavering inhabitants. Burgoyne was 
forced to remain on the eastern bank of the Hudson 
between Fort Edward and Battenkill for over three 
weeks while by great efforts a sufficient amount of 
supplies were brought from Lake George to last the 
army for thirty days. Hopeful and self-confident 
as he was, the English general seems not to have 
been without his doubts at this time. He did not 
know that through the carelessness of the English 
ministry, the orders for Howe at New York to co- 
operate with him had been pigeon-holed, but he 
knew that Howe instead of ascending the Hudson 
had gone southward. A more cautious general 
would have intrenched himself behind the Hudson 
and waited where he ran no risk of being cut off 
from supplies and retreat. But Burgoyne had 
staked all upon this campaign. He is said to have 
boasted that he would eat his Christmas dinner in 
Albany where his younger officers confidently ex- 
pected comfortable quarters for the winter, intending 
to dance the ladies of the town into submission. 
He was above all a clashing man and not the one to 
take the risk of being accused of cowardice for the 
sake of saving an army. He called no council of his 
general officers for fear of hearing ad vice he did not 
wish to accept but resolved to cut himself loose 


from his connections by crossing the Hudson and 
trust to pushing his way through to Albany within 
the single month in which he could feed his men. 

The batteaux of the army were linked together 
into a floating bridge above the mouth of the Batten- 
kill and the main army crossed the Hudson to the 
Saratoga side on the thirteenth of September. At 
the forward movement Burgoyne's spirits rose to 
such a pitch that he exclaimed in the high-flown 
English that he loved : 

"Britons never retrograde !" 

Tired of inaction all were elated and it was in a 
most cheerful mood that officers and men set foot 
on the soil of Saratoga. Women even caught the 
infection and the possibility of disaster seemed to 
enter no one's mind. The English army encamped 
on a plain north of Fish Creek where the village of 
Schuylerville now stands. On the other side of the 
small stream lay the old village of Saratoga, and 
here stood the handsome country residence of Gen- 
eral Philip Schuyler, who had inherited the prop- 
erty of his uncle, the Peter Schuyler who had been 
massacred here in the third French war. There was 
also a church and a flour mill belonging to the gen- 
eral. The fields were waving with growing wheat 
and oats in this region. The grain was at once har- 
vested by the army, the wheat being ground at the 
mill for the use of the men and the oats reserved for 
the horses which drew the artillery and baggage. 
Burgoyne made Schuyler's house his headquarters. 
The Indians of his army are said to have resorted 


at this time to Saratoga Lake to procure fine trout 
for his table. 

On the fifteenth of September tents were struck, 
the floating bridge was broken up and Burgoyne's 
army moved southward through Saratoga County, 
following the windings of the river down which the 
batteaux floated loaded with the necessities of life. 
It was necessary for one column of the army to 
march along the crest of the wooded river hills to 
protect the whole from surprise. The more cumber- 
some portion burdened with artillery and baggage 
streamed along the river road. The route lay 
through beautiful and endless forests. The men 
sang as they marched and longed for victory. The 
army encamped for the night at Dovogat, now 
Coveville, and remained in camp the following day 
while advanced parties repaired the bridges ahead 
over which it was to move. 

The English army now amounted to about six 
thousand men, portions of it having been detached 
to man posts, others having been killed or taken in 
the various engagements. Of the number of Indi- 
ans who had originally joined Burgoyne's army there 
remained but fifty ; there were besides three hundred 
drivers, workmen and boatmen and nearly as many 
women and camp followers. Several officer's wives 
also accompanied the army. Among these was 
Lady Harriet Acland, a handriome and ''delicate lit- 
tle piece of quality" who had joined her husband 
after he had been wounded at Hubbardton, and the 
Baroness deRiedesel who, with three little children, 
had followed the baron all the way from Germany 


and now traveled amidst the soldiers in a Canadian 
calash attended by two maids and a cook. These 
ladies had no doubt of spending a pleasant winter 
in Albany and had not found it disagreeable to dine 
in barns well attended. 

On the morning of September seventeeth Bur- 
goyne advanced only a short distance to a place then 
known as Sword's farm, midway between Coveville 
and Wilbur's Basin. He was now nearing the 
American camp and there was ominous skirmishing 
between the men sent ahead to repair bridges and 
American scouting parties. Some women and sol- 
diers who ventured out of the English camp to dig 
potatoes in a field were captured after several had 
been killed. 


On the morning of September nineteenth, 1777, 
Burgoyne divided his forces into three columns and 
marched upon the American encampment, deter- 
mined to force his way past the army of Gates and 
on to Albany. General Phillips with the heavy 
park of artillery followed the river road and was 
guarded on the east by General Riedesel who skirted 
the river bank on his left. These generals advanced 
straight toward the works with which the Ameri- 
cans defended the pass between the river and their 
camp on Bemis Heights. A central column under 
Burgoyne advanced at the same time over the hills 
to attack the Americans in front while a third 
under Fraser marched through the forests still far- 
ther to the west cutting as it went a part of what is 
now the road from Quaker Springs to Schuyler ville. 

l»f rBottte oj Saratoga 



It was Burgoyne's plan that this most western col- 
umn having made a circuit around the head of the 
ravine should fall upon the left or west of the 
American position while Burgoyne attacked it in 
front and Phillips and Riedesel kept the Americans 
occupied at the river bank. It was not thought 
that the American works which were hastily thrown 
up could stand artillery and it was expected 
that when the Americans were driven in on the hills 
by the combined attacks of Burgoyne and Fraser, 
Riedesel and Phillips would be able to force their 
way through the American right to the river's edge 
and so continue the march toward Albany. There 
were to be signal guns fired when Fraser had com- 
pleted his more roundabout march and at this 
moment the combined attack was to begin. 

But the English were not destined to see the 
American works that day. By mid-day Burgoyne 
had reached a point a little north of Freeman's farm, 
one of those settlers clearings to be found here and 
there in the woods of those days. Canadians and 
Indians were thrown out in advance of his column 
to prevent a surprise. They had crossed the ravine 
south of Freeman's farm when they fell in with the 
Virginia Colonel Morgan, whose sharpshooters were 
the dread of the English soldiers and who had been 
sent by Washington to the aid of the invaded north. 
Morgan attacked the Canadians and Indians, driv- 
ing them across the ravine and backward toward 
Freeman's farm until they were reinforced by a 
strong body of English soldiers under Major Forbes. 
A brisk little struggle followed and Forbes was 


presently forced to retreat to where the English col- 
umn under Burgoyne was forming in an open pine 
wood to the north of Freeman's farm. Morgan re- 
tired from before the English front but being rein- 
forced advanced again and attacked it. 

Meanwhile Arnold's division of the American 
army attempted to cut Fraser off by getting between 
him and Burgoyne. The woods hid the movements 
of both bodies of men, the one from the other, until 
they finally met on some level ground to the west of 
Freeman's farm. Here a fierce struggle took place 
until when fresh troops being sent to Fraser's aid by 
Burgoyne, Arnold's men were forced to retire. 
Fraser kept his position to the west of Burgoyne 
during the remainder of the day to protect him on 
this side but there was no more fighting at this point. 

All this was but the prelude to the real struggle. 
There was a lull while the English drew up in line 
of battle to the north and the Americans to the 
south of Freeman's farm, and here the main battle 
began at three o'clock in the afternoon. The fire of 
the Americans from the cover of the thick woods to 
the south was most galling in its perfection of aim. 
Again and again the English charged them and 
tried to dislodge them at the point of the bayonet but 
were driven back across the fields of the little clear 
ing. At one time the Americans pressed the Eng- 
lish so hard that they must have given way had not 
General Phillips marched through the woods from 
the river road to Burgoyne's aid with some artillery. 
There was a fierce struggle over the English artillery 
posted on the little farm. When the Americans 


pursued the English back across the farm after 
each bayonet charge they captured the pieces but 
could neither carry them away, for want of horses, 
nor turn them on the enemy for lack of a match 
with which to touch them off. At the next charge 
they fell once more into English hands only to be 
again retaken and relinquished. 

For four hours the battle raged back and forth 
across the twelve or fourteen acres of the little 
clearing. Several times the Americans brought 
fresh troops to the attack while three English regi- 
ments bore the brunt of the battle. The English 
were at length pretty nearly surrounded on both 
flanks and must have lost the day had not General 
Riedesel guided by the firing made his way through 
the woods from the river bank to their aid. Just at 
the close of day, at between seven and eight o'clock 
a final bayonet charge drove the Americans from 
the field. 

The English were the victors. They remained in 
possession of the few bare little acres of Freeman's 
farm, and Burgoyne included this spot in his camp, 
declaring that thus his victory must be made so ap- 
parent that it would be beyond the power of even an 
American newspaper to explain it away. But 
though the English were victorious they were so 
nearly beaten as to be unable to follow up their vic- 
tory on the following morning when had they but 
known it they would have found the Americans 
quite out of ammunition, an expected supply being 
yet on the road from Albany. More than all, their 
victory was a barren one for they were no nearer 


Albany than on the previous day and the Americans 
were still strong in their front. 

The American losses were from three to four 
hundred, the English amounted to from six hundred 
to a thousand. The English losses were greater 
than those of the Americans, because of the greater 
precision of aim of sharpshooters and settlers trained 
to hunting from childhood. Though the Americans 
were not victorious they were so encouraged by 
their own success in making a stand against the in- 
vaders that numbers flocked to Gates' standard after 
the battle. 


Aftei the first battle of Saratoga Burgoyne en- 
camped in a line from Freeman's farm on the west 
to Wilbur's Basin on the river bank. He threw a 
bridge of boats across the river to obtain forage for 
his horses from the eastern shore. Three days after 
the battle a messenger arrived from Sir Henry 
Clinton at New York with the news that this gen- 
eral intended to co operate with Burgoyne by as- 
cending the Hudson. This gave fresh hope to the 
English commanding officer who knew that General 
Gates had a bridge across the river at his camp and 
expected that the approach of an English army 
from the south would force him to retreat across the 
Hudson for the defense of New England or that he 
would at least detach a part of his army for this 
purpose and so weaken it. 

For three weeks of charming fall weather the 
English and American armies lay so near that the 
wadding of an American morning and evening gun 


struck the English works, yet so hidden by inter- 
vening woods that neither could get a sight of the 
other and both were ignorant of each other's num- 
bers or position. Both armies labored to strengthen 
their works, the Americans adding to their's and ex- 
tending them farther westward. 

Two days after the battle the men in the English 
camp heard a great deal of shouting and rejoicing 
among the Americans. It was not until some days 
later that Burgoyne learned that it was due to the 
partial success of an American detachment under 
Colonel Brown who had been sent to fall upon Ti- 
conderoga. Colonel Brown had captured some Eng- 
lish vessels, part of an English regiment and re- 
leased a number of American prisoners at this post. 

In the English camp the men lay on their arms in 
constant dread of an attack, there were frequent 
alarms and at night packs of wolves howled dismally 
around the battlefield of the nineteenth scratching 
up the scantily- covered bodies of the dead. By the 
fourth of October Burgoyne's position was become 
well-nigh intolerable. His provisions were running 
low and it became necessary to put the men on half 
rations while his horses were suffering severely for 
want of forage. Riedesel and Fraser urged an im- 
mediate retreat across the Saratoga ford to a posi- 
tion above the Battenkill where communications 
might be kept up with Canada through Lake George 
and Lake Champlain. General Burgoyne having in 
every way bound himself to advance was unwilling 
to make any backward movement. He preferred to 
hazard one more effort to force himself past the 


American army. He believed that on the west of 
the American camp where the works were unfin- 
ished cannon might be posted in such a way as te 
command them and that they might be taken at 
this point. It was impossible to be certain of this 
without reconnoitering the western wing of the 
American position which could not be done with 
the usual small parties because of the disposition the 
Americans showed to fight any body of men which 
attempted to approach them. Burgoyne therefore 
resolved to march with a force of fifteen hundred 
picked men on the seventh of October to a clearing 
southwest of Freeman's farm for the double pur- 
pose of reconnoitreing and of harvesting the 
standing straw in an abandoned wheat field 
for the sustenance of his perishing horses. 
If it was then found that an attack could 
with any hope of success be made on the American 
camp, Burgoyne proposed to give battle on the fol- 
lowing day ; if not he intended to retreat that very 

A battle was not looked for on this day and 
Madame de Riedesel expected all the generals of the 
army to dine with her that very afternoon. She 
was alarmed when she saw a movement among the 
troops but was reassured when told that it was 
merely a reconnaisance and her cook proceeded with 
preparations for a dinner to be given in the one 
room of a little farm house in which she was forced 
to live. 


Between ten and eleven o'clock on the morning of 
the seventh of October, Burgoyne marched to the 


new clearing southwest of Freeman's farm. He 
drew up his men around three sides of an oblong, 
those on the left being on the crest of a gentle hill 
at the eastern edge of the field, the main line facing 
south and running through the woods to a little 
knoll. When the men were formed in line they 
were allowed to sit dow^n with their muskets be- 
tween their knees while the foragers in their rear 
cut the standing straw in the wheat field and several 
officers climbed to the roof of the log farm house to 
reconnoiter the western portion of the American 
camp. A party of Indian and Canadian soldiers 
were sent to create a diversion at the American 
camp while Burgoyne reconnoitered. They got into 
the rear of a log barn w r hich was the farthest west- 
ern point of the American defenses but were driven 
back after a smart skirmish. 

A young American officer sent forward to discover 
what the enemy was at gained the woods on the 
other side of the ravine which skirted the left of the 
field where the English were engaged in foraging. 
He returned to General Gates and reported the 
enemy's position. It was thought that Burgoyne 
was offering battle. Troops were sent to fall upon 
the English in front and on either side at the same 
time. The English had nearly finished their recon- 
noisance and in half an hour later would have re- 
turned to their lines when at about three o'clock in 
the afternoon the Americans fell upon them. Gen- 
erals Poor and Learned having ordered their men to 
hold their fire until they were "rising the hill," 
pushed up the slope on the east where the English 

grenadiers were stationed forming the left flank of 
the English position. The grenadiers greeted them 
with a volley of grape and musketry, which being 
aimed too high, went over the heads of the Amer- 
icans who as they gained the summit of the rise 
fired and opened to right and left to form on both 
flanks of the grenadiers. At the top of the hill there 
was a close and bloody struggle. One field piece 
was taken and retaken fiive times, the Americans 
finally holding it and having "sworn it true to 
America," turned it on the grenadiers who were 
forced to give away about the time that their major, 
Acland. was severely wounded. While this was 
going on upon the eastern part of the field Morgan 
fell upon the English right wing to the west and 
after a sharp struggle forced the enemy to break 
and give way. The men were, however, rallied by 
the Earl of Balcarras behind a rail fence but only to 
be again forced in by superior numbers. The center 
of the English position consisting mainly of Ger- 
mans was attacked at the same time. The whole 
English line being at length thrown into confusion 
by the driving in of both wings a retreat began. 
General Fraser formed a second line of battle in the 
rear of the first position to cover the retjeat. While 
he was riding about on a fine gray horse encourag- 
ing the men to make a firm stand he was shot by 
one of Morgan's sharpshooters by that officer's com- 
mand, he having seen that the fate of the day prob- 
ably depended on the life of this brave officer. 

The Americans were reinforced about this time 
by General Ten Broeck and three thousand New 



York militia and just at dusk the English were 
forced to retreat in haste to their lines. As they 
poured into the camp they were followed by General 
Burgoyne who, with a face full of consternation, 
rode about ordering the officers to defend the lines 
while a man was left alive. The Americans followed 
fast on the heels of the retreating English. They 
assaulted the western part of the English works all 
along the line most furiously. It was now dark and 
the night was brilliantly illuminated with the flash 
of cannon and small arms. The Americans forced 
their way into the part of the lines commanded by 
the Earl of Balcarras on or near the battlefield of 
Freeman's farm but after a severe struggle they 
were driven out again. Others at the same time at- 
tacked the extreme right or most western part of 
the English position were the German officer, Colo- 
nel Breyman, was posted with a battery. While a 
body of Americans attacked this post in front others 
under General Learned drove back some Canadian 
troops who occupied two block houses in a hollow 
between Breyman and the main army. By the cap- 
ture of these block houses the Americans were 
enabled to get into the rear of the German battery 
and in five minutes forced it, killed Breyman and 
dispersed the German soldiers who defended it. 

Arnold had no command in the second battle of 
Saratoga, having quarreled with Gates. He became 
madly excited as the battle progressed, once striking 
an officer with his sword, an occurrence which he 
did not at all remember on the next day. He rode 
at one time from right to left of the American line 


between the ranks of both armies and exposed to 
their fire. During the attack on Br ey man's battery- 
he led platoons of men furiously here and there. 
He entered the German battery at the moment of its 
fall and received here a wound in his leg while his 
horse was shot under him. Some accounts give 
him the credit of having almost at the same time 
forced the English works on the front where the 
Americans struggled with the troops of the Earl of 
Balcarras. His reckless courage has long made him 
the popular hero of the second battle of Saratoga 
though many more modest American officers fought 
most bravely and are forgotten. The true heroes of 
the day were the American farmers who flocked to 
the defense of their country, and who fought in its 
cause with unflinching ardor. 

The action closed with the complete fall of night. 
The Americans were the victors and had gained a 
great advantage with the possession of Breyman's 
battery. They at once moved cannon forward with 
the intention of falling upon the exposed western 
end of the English line when day should have 
dawned. To save himself from a position which 
must have led to the destruction of his army Bur- 
goyne was obliged to spend the night in drawing 
his lines in toward the river bank in a position some- 
what back of that he had formerly occupied. 

The English losses were large in this battle and 
over two hundred men were taken prisoners. The 
American losses were small. In both the battles of 
Saratoga many English officers were killed owing to 
the exact aim of the American riflemen. Great was 


the consternatiou of Baroness de Riedesel when on 
the afternoon of the battle General Fraser, wounded 
and dying, was brought into the small farmhouse 
which she occupied and stretched on the table where 
dinner had been laid for the lady's expected guests. 
The dying man exclaimed against ambition, mourned 
for his wife, pitied General Burgoyne and frequently 
apologized to the baroness for the trouble he was 
giving her. When the latter saw toward morning 
that he was dying she wrapped her sleeping child- 
ren in blankets and carried them to the passage al- 
ready crowded with the sick and remained there 
till the last scene was over. She was obliged to sit 
all the following day in the room where lay the gen- 
eral's corpse wrapped in a sheet for burial. From 
this day all was terror and confusion for the women 
whom the confidence and indulgence of Burgoyne 
had permitted to join the army. Lady Acland was 
in deep distress because her husband had been sadly 
wounded and was a prisoner. An effort had been 
made to carry Acland off the field first by an officer 
who was his friend and then by a soldier who was 
offered fifty guineas for saving the wounded man 
but the Americans followed so closely upon the heels 
of the retreating English that the attempt had to be 
given up. Wilkinson, the American adjutant gen- 
eral crossed the part of the battlefield where the 
grenadiers had been defeated late in the afternoon 
and saw there within a space of fifteen yards eigh- 
teen dying grenadiers and three officers propped up 
against trees, two of them mortally wounded. 

"Protect me, sir, against this boy," said a voice 
near at hand. 


The young American officer turned to see Major 
Acland helpless from his wounds while a boy of 
fourteen was aiming a gun at him. Wilkinson dis- 
mounted, took the major's hand and said that he 
hoped that he was not badly wounded. 

"Not badly," said the major, "but very inconven- 
iently. I am shot through both legs. Will you, sir. 
have the goodness to have me conveyed to your 

Wilkinson ordered Acland to be put on his own 
horse and taken to the American camp. Before the 
battle was fairly over Acland's servant searched the 
battlefield for the Major but received a wound in his 
arm and was unable to find him. Lady Harriet 
Acland was consequently left in great anxiety about 
her husband's condition. 

During the battle Gates had been in sufficient un- 
certainty as to its outcome to cause the baggage 
wagons to be loaded and ready to begin a retreat at 
a moments warning. The first news which reached 
the American army was that the English greatly 
outnumbered the Americans, whereupon the wagons 
began to move down the Albany road, but the rumor 
was almost immediately contradicted and they were 
ordered to halt. Several times during the battle 
they were started and then stopped until at length 
word came that the British had retreated. There 
arose loud huzzas from the guard and teamsters. 
The news spread at once to the surrounding country 
and many people who lived in the neighborhood 
hastened into the American camp to have a share in 
the rejoicings. The American soldiers were in a 


delirium of joy and forgetting to be hungry neglec- 
ted to draw their rations but pushed on eagerly to 
the front of the English position to be ready for the 
pursuit of the English army when it should retreat. 


Burgoyne expected that the Americans would 
renew the battle on the next day. But Gates pro- 
posed to risk nothing. He had already sent a body 
of men to occupy the heights of Saratoga at the 
ford which Burgoyne must cross in retreating north- 
ward and he perhaps felt that he had the English 
army in a trap. The Americans merely advanced 
to a spot near the narrowed English front on the 
river bank and kept up an incessant cannonade on 
Burgoyne's encampment. Within the English line 
a retreat was felt to be imminent and all the woun- 
ded officers and men who could stand on their legs 
staggered out of the hosptial at the river's edge and 
up to the English lines that they might not be left 

Toward evening the body of General Fraser was 
carried, as he had requested, to the Great Redoubt 
for burial. The remaining generals of the army, 
Burgoyne, Phillips and Riedesel were standing to- 
gether when the scanty funeral procession passed. 
Fearing that they might seem to the soldiery to 
slight the memory of a brave officer, the three fell 
into line and followed it. The American gunners 
seeing a group of men on the Great Redoubt turned 
their cannon on them and while the chaplain read 
in a steady voice the burial service, cannon balls 

plowed up the ground around the assembled heads 
of the army. Madame de Riedesel. herself exposed 
to the enemy's fire, watched in the English camp 
this wanton risk of life in an agonized suspense. 
The dramatic nature of this burial pleased Bur- 
goyne's imagination and he afterward described it 
in the overdrawn style in which he wrote. 


This scene was scarcely over when Burgoyne gave 
the order for a night retreat. From nine to eleven 
o'clock the army was silently filing out of its en- 
campment and began "dancing the minuet back- 
ward" as a German officer said. Brightly lighted 
fires concealed the movement from the enemy and 
served to keep up an appearance of life in the camp 
for some time after it was deserted by all but the 
few hundred wounded men left behind in the hos- 
pital. A pouring rain added to the discomforts and 
difficulties of the night march. The main body of 
the American army had meanwhile returned to the 
encampment on Bemus Heighths ; the men having 
discovered by this time that they were hungry and 
exhausted were obliged to retire to draw their 
rations. Gates, indeed gave himself no great con- 
cern over the English retreat when he heard of it 
but put off going in pursuit until the rain should 
have ceased. 

Burgoyne pushed on through the greater part of 
the night but halted before daylight at Coveville, to 
the disgust of many people in his army, as eager 
now to escape as they had once been to advance. 
They did not however know the commander's diffi- 


culties. His flat bottomed battaux laden with the 
remnant of provisions made but slow progress up 
stream and as their loss would mean an immediate 
famine he was obliged to wait for them. During 
this halt Lady Harriet Acland distressed at being 
carried farther away from her wounded husband 
and dreading the being seperated from him for a 
long time if the retreat should prove successful, re- 
solved to go to the American camp in search of him 
for though he was a rough man she was a devoted 
wife. Provided with a note from General Burgoyne 
to General Gates and fortified with a little rum and 
muddy water she descended the river in a boat ac- 
companied by her maid, her husband's wounded 
valet and the good chaplain who had read the burial 
service at Fraser's funeral. 

The batteaux at length arrived and the men drew 
rations. Some feared that it would be for the last 
time for the Americans lay in wait along the oppo- 
site shore of the Hudson and attacked the boats 
from time to time as they followed the retreat of the 
English army. Had Burgoyne pushed on more 
rapidly it is thought that he might have captured or 
dispersed the body of Americans rather carelessly 
encamped at the Saratoga ford. There was time, 
however, for a warning to reach them and as the 
English approached these men crossed the river and 
encamped on the opposite shore at the fording place, 
an insurmountable obstacle to Burgoyne's retreat by 
the road he had come. 

The evening of the ninth brought the weary and 
mud-stained English to the old village of Saratoga. 


The main army forded the Fish Creek waist deep 
and the men lay down to rest for the night without 
so much as building fires to dry their rain -soaked 
clothing. The Baroness de Riedesel slept beside her 
children in her wet garments on some straw before 
a camp fire. Weary as she was she would gladly 
have gone on for she was eager to escape capture 
and she did not know that retreat across the river 
by the usual route was already cut off. Burgoyne 
did not fail of his night's revelry, for he had invited 
his officers to a supper at the deserted mansion of 
General Schuyler which was brilliantly lighted for 
the purpose. A certain commissary's wife shared 
in these feasts, where glass jingled and singing and 
laughter went on for half the night. The morning 
after his midnight supper at Saratoga Burgoyne 
caused Schuyler's mansion to be burned lest it 
should shelter the American troops in their pursuit 
of the English. 


The next morning revealed to the English the 
body of Americans posted on the other side of the 
river at the ford of Saratoga, where Burgoyne meant 
to have crossed to comparative safety and communi- 
cation with home and food. There was but one 
way of escape left open and this was to continue up 
the western bank of the river to Fort Edward and 
to cross the Hudson at this point. Burgoyne now 
sent a detachment ahead to open roads for this pur- 

The Americans did not march in pursuit of the 
English until noon of October tenth, the second day 


after the retreat. They reached Saratoga village at 
four o'clock on the same afternoon, so short a dis- 
tance had the English succeeded in retreating, ham- 
pered as they were with the slow progress up stream 
of the batteaux and burdened with artillery. The 
Americans found the English army encamped on 
their old ground to the north of Fish Creek, its boats 
drawn up at the mouth of the little stream while 
men hastily unloaded the few provisions left. From 
the opposite bank of the river the American troops 
stationed near the ford to prevent a crossing played 
upon the English camp with artillery. 


The next morning, October eleventh, there was a 
heavy fog. Hearing of the march of the body of 
English troops sent to clear the way to Fort Edward, 
Gates supposed that the main body of the English 
army was endeavoring to escape him in that way 
and had left the few guards known to be in front of 
the English camp at Saratoga to deceive him. He 
ordered the American troops to cross the creek in 
pursuit, part of them at the river road and others 
above the mill dam to the west. The latter troops 
under General Morgan were the first to cross. They 
fell in with an English picket which fired upon them 
and killed several men. Morgan did not like his 
position with the creek behind him. He believed 
that the English had not retreated as Gates had 
supposed. Other troops under General Learned 
were sent to his support. Wilkinson, the young 
adjutant general, after having visited Morgan and 
found that the body of American troops on the road 

had not yet crossed but were waiting for guides sent 
to Gates who always kept well in the rear this mes- 

"Tell the general that his own fame and the in- 
terests of the cause are at hazard ; that his presence 
is necessary with the troops." 

He then guided the right column of the American 
troops across the creek. Under cover of the fog 
these men succeeded in capturing an English recon- 
noitering party of thirty men. These prisoners said 
that the English had not marched away but were at 
their posts. Burgoyne had indeed ordered back the 
troops sent toward Fort Edward and was eagerly 
awaiting the struggle, in which he would be at such 
an advantage that he had no doubt of success. No 
one had any authority to stop the movement across 
the creek as Gates was still a mile away and 
twelve or fifteen hundred men were soon on the 
other side of the stream. At this critical moment 
the fog suddenly lifted and the whole English army 
could be seen under arms and drawn up in order of 
battle. The park of English artillery was directly 
in front of the Americans and the main English 
force was massed on their left. The English at once 
opened a heavy fire and the Americans, under so un- 
expected an attack recoiled, broke and retreated 
across the creek in haste. Wilkinson now thought 
of the other Americans who had crossed to the west- 
ward above the mill. The standing orders were 
that in case of an attack at any point, Americans 
were to fall on the enemy at all quarters. The offi- 
cers of these men would certainly take the firing 


near the river's edge for such an attack and must 
inarch upon the English only to be captured or de- 
stroyed. He hastened to follow them and found 
that they had advanced toward the strongest part 
of the English position upon the crown of a hill west 
of the river and were already within two hundred 
yards of it. Wilkinson rode up to Generol Learned 
who was now in command at this point and told 
him that he must retreat. 

"Have you orders ?" demanded the officer. 

Wilkinson said that he had not as there was not 
time to go in search of General Gates. 

"Our brothers are engaged on the right" said 
General Learned "and the standing order is to at- 
tack.' 1 

' 'Our troops on the right have retired and the fire 
you hear is from the enemy," replied Wilkinson. 
"Although I have no orders for your retreat'" he 
added, "I pledge my life that the general will ap- 

It was decided to retire- and the Americans had no 
sooner faced about than the English fired upon them 
killing several before they were hidden by the 
neighboring woods. It was a bitter dissappoint- 
ment to Burgoyne to see the Americans retreat. He 
expected this day to have retrieved all his mis- 
fortunes for he would have had the Americans at 
the sort of disadvantage for which he had so long 
sought in vain and would have been able to have 
used to advantage the cumbersome park of artillery 
he had trundled through the wilderness to no pur- 



The English proposed as a last resort to abandon 
baggage and artillery and beat a hasty retreat up the> 
the west side of the river. But before this move- 
ment was begun scouts arrived with news that Fort 
Edward was already in possession of the Americans. 
All hope was now at an end for the English army. 
American troops lay south, east and west of it, while 
to the northward the crossing places in the river at 
Fort Edward and Glens Falls were disputed by- 
bodies of men. 

An incessant cannonade was opened upon the 
English camp. The dreaded sharpshooters also 
climbed trees the better to pick off men and horses 
for the latter were now in a starving condition and 
often escaped from the ditches which afforded them 
shelter to the tempting green meadow near old Fort 
Hardy only to fall speedy victims to rifle and cannon 
balls. Provisions were well nigh exhausted and in 
the confusion and danger of the cannonade thos& 
that were left were not always distributed. 

After her first night in the rain on the straw, 
Madame de Riedessel took refuge in a farm house 
somewhat north of the English army. As she rode 
to this house in her calash she was aimed at by five 
or six men from the other side of the river. She 
threw her children down and herself on top of them 
to protect them from the rifle balls, which broke the 
arm of a wounded English soldier, who stood behind 
them. Soon after she had taken refuge in the house 
together with other women and the wounded, the 
building was cannonaded. Having seen so many 


enter it the Americans believed it to be headquart- 
ers. The cannonade obliged the inmates to take 
refuge in the cellar. The next morning when the 
cannonade had taken for the time a different direc- 
tion the inhabitants of the cellar left it that it might 
be cleaned. There was a rush for it again when 
firing began afresh and many took refuge there 
under a pretense of being ill who proved afterwards 
to be well'enough. Eleven cannon balls went through 
the house at this time, one of them taking off the 
second leg of a poor man w T ho was about to have the 
first amputated. It was about this time that a hasty 
retreat up the western bank of the river to Fort 
Edward was thought of. General de Riedesel had a 
horse in readiness for his wife's flight and some 
wounded officers who occupied the cellar swore that 
each would take one of the children on his 
horse in the rush for escape. All the officers' wives 
who had made the campaign with the baroness had 
had their husbands either killed or wounded and she 
trembled hourly for the Baron and wondered if she 
could be the only one to have the happiness to escape 
such a 1 sorrow. Riedesel thought of sending her to 
the American lines for safety but she could not bear 
to be separated from him and often crept at night 
up the cellar stairs to assure herself that the English 
army had not marched away and left her behind. 
When she saw the soldiers near their watch fires she 
was reassured. Her cook, who was a great rascal 
and often during the campaign had forded streams 
and stolen sheep and fowls from American farmers 
for which he charged his master as though he had 

paid for them, still supplied the Baroness with food 
but drink was lacking. The inmates of the cellar as 
well as the whole of the English army suffered for 
water for the Americans fired upon every one who 
approached the river. A soldier's wife was at length 
found who brought water to the sufferers in the 
cellar. The Americans respected her sex and did 
not fire upon her when she came to the water's edge. 
After the surrender her apron was filled with gold 
coins as a reward for her services. A woman in 
another part of the encampment had a sadder fate, 
for she was killed by an American sentinel while 
getting water at a little brook near Fish Creek be- 
cause she did not answer his challenge. A cannon 
ball is said to have rolled across the table at which 
Burgoyne and his officers sat deliberating. Accord- 
ing to another account it carried away a leg of mut- 
ton off of which they were about to dine. 


On the thirteenth of October Burgoyne called a 
council of his officers at which it was decided that a 
surrender was the only thing left for the English 
army. The next day he opened negotiations with 
Gates. A truce was agreed upon and the cannonade 
ceased to the great relief of the inmates of the cellar. 
Gates demanded an unconditional surrender. Bur. 
goyne in his playwright's style made answer that 
rather than this his troops would "rush on the 
enemy determined to take no quarter." In truth as 
he very well knew the men had got the capitulation 
in their heads by this time and disheartened and 
harrassed as they were would hardly have taken it 


kindly to be asked to risk their lives again in a losing 

It was finally agreed that the English army should 
surrender on condition of being allowed to return to 
England with the promise of not again taking arms 
in America during the war. Burgoyne saved his 
pride a little by calling this a convention rather than 
a capitulation. Gates would not have granted such 
liberal terms to Burgoyne who was wholly in his 
power, had he not heard of the ascent of the Hudson 
by Sir Henry Clinton, news which must have seemed 
very formidable and alarming to him. 

The terms of the surrender were already agreed 
upon by the officers who acted for the two generals 
and lacked only a formal signature when a spy got 
through to Burgoyne with the news of Clinton's 
move up the Hudson coupled with the false rumor 
that the general had already reached Albany. These 
tidings threw Burgoyne into indecision again. He 
wished that he had made no agreement with Gates. 
He called his officers together to determine whether 
he were bound in honor to stand by what had al- 
ready been done. The majority of them thought 
that he was, but Burgoyne, to gain time and an ex- 
cuse for breaking off the negotiations, accused Gates 
in a letter of having despatched a part of his army 
to Albany against Clinton. Gates had in fact sent 
some regiments of militia southward for this pur- 
pose on the day before the negotiations were opened 
between him and Burgoyne. He could however say 
in answer to Burgoyne that he had just been rein 
forced and that his army numbered many more than 


that of the English general. Early on the morning 
of the seventeenth of October he drew up his troops 
in order of battle and sent word to Burgoyne that he 
proposed at once to attack him if he did not stand 
by his word. Burgoyne then hastened to sign the 
articles of capitulation, known as the Convention of 

At eleven o'clock on the same morning, Burgoyne, 
in full court dress, attended by his aids, one of 
whom was a lord and the other a young gentleman 
who became in after life an earl and followed by 
the generals Phillips and Riedesel, rode to the head 
of the American camp where he was met by General 
Gates in a plain blue frock coat. The two generals 
approached to within sword's length of each other 
and when they had been introduced by the attend- 
ing American officer, Burgoyne said: 

"The fortune of war, General Gates, has made me 
your prisoner." 

"I shall always be ready to bear testimony," 
Gates replied, "that it has not been through any 
fault of your excellency."' 

At eleven o'clock on the same morning the Eng- 
lish troops marched to the meadow near old Fort 
Hardy and oppressed with the stench of dead horses 
made short work of laying down their arms. With 
a delicacy appreciated by the English officers the 
troops of the American army were kept out of sight 
during this mortifying scene. The English soldiers 
next crossed the creek and marched through the 
double ranks of the American army. The American 
flag had recently been adopted and its earliest use is 


said to have been at Saratoga when it was borne be- 
fore the conquered army. Yankee Doodle also 
seems first to have been played here as a national 
tune and the English soldiers were not a little 
mortified to make their first steps as prisoners to 
time with the mocking gaiety of the homely ditty, 
which reminded them that their conquerers were 
the very Yankees they had so despised at the open, 
ing of the summer. 

As the English troops passed the combined log 
hut and cave dug by some settler in a bank that 
served the purpose of American headquarters, Gates 
and Burgoyne stepped out and the usual ceremony 
was observed, the English general presenting his 
sword to the American and the latter returning it 
with a bow. During this time when the eyes of all 
in the conquering army were on the captive troops 
the Americans showed not the least sign of exulta- 
tion over a fallen enemy. Their faces expressed 
rather "pity and mute astonishment.'' It was ob- 
served that the American soldiers wore no uniform 
being dressed in their common clothes while the 
officers' uniforms varied greatly and were evidently 
home made. The Americans, however, commanded 
respect by their attitude which was "erect and 
soldierly" and as one of their prisoners said, they 
were so "slender, fine-looking and sinewy that it was 
pleasant to look at them." 

The Baroness de Riedesel followed the fallen army 
into the American camp with many forbodings. 
The sight of a mother and her little children in cap- 
tivity aroused however only compassion in the 


hearts of the honest American soldiers and the lady 
could not but see in the faces of all their kindly feel- 
ings toward her. General Schuyler as he helped the 
little family to alight from the calash kissed the 
children and with tears in his eyes led them to his 
tent where he regaled them and their mother with 
smoked tongues, beefsteak, potatoes and fresh but- 
ter and bread. Schuyler insisted upon entertaining 
this lady and her children at Albany. With his 
usual delicacy he promised to direct Burgoyne to a 
comfortable lodging in this town which proved also 
to be his own handsome mansion. Burgoyne on 
first being introduced to Schuyler apologized for 
having burned his Saratoga house and Schuyler at 
once set him at ease by begging him to think no 
more of it since the rules of war justified its de- 

Schuyler has been always regarded as more than 
any other the real hero of Burgoyne's campaign, 
having borne the brunt of its difficulties and ac- 
cepted the mortification of unjust suspicion with 
patient patriotism. Gates afterwards lost the name 
he gained at Saratoga in the battle of Camden, 
where he is said to have fled with a retreating por- 
tion of his troops after saying that he would "bring 
the rascals back." Burgoyne returned to England 
to be cast aside by minister and king. They chose 
that he should bear the blame of failure rather than 
that their own negligence and unwisdom should be 
revealed. Burgoyne was not the man to endure 
such treatment patiently and defended himself 
vigorously. In doing justice to himself and his 


army he testified to the courage, resolution and de- 
termination of the Americans. 

The American Congress very unjustly kept Bur- 
goyne's army on various pretexts captive that it 
might not by being returned to Englanh enable 
other troops to be sent in its place to America. The 
Baroness de Riedesel counted herself happy in being 
able to share her husband's captivity and did not 
regret the hardships she had endured at Saratoga. 
Major Acland recovered sufficiently from his 
wounds to be able to return to England but died 
soon afterward. The romantic tale long believed in 
America that Lady Harriet Acland afterwards 
married the chaplain who accompanied her on her 
night ride down the Hudson to the American army 
is not true. The faithful lady lived for many years 
a widow and did nothing more uncommon than to 
erect a monument to the American maid who had 
accompanied her through the trials of Burgoyne's 
campaign and afterwards served her for many years. 


The second battle of Saratoga has been ranked 
as one of fifteen decisive battles in the world's his- 
tory, battles which turned events from the course 
which they otherwise have followed. The first of 
these decisive battles was Marathon, the last Water- 
loo; Saratoga was the thirteenth. As a result of 
this victory the reputation of the young nation at 
once rose high in all the civilized countries of the 
wo^ld. Before the capture of Burgoyne's army the 
colonies sought in vain for the open aid of France, 
whose interests and pride led her to wish for the 


humbling of England, but who feared that the uni- 
ted American colonies could not long withstand the 
arms of the mother country and hesitated to join a 
losing cause. The complete capture of a whole 
English army at Saratoga by a body of Americans 
without any outside aid reassured France and she at 
once plunged into war with England. Had it not been 
for the European war which ensued the independ- 
ence of the United States could not have been 

Burgoyne's was the sole English army which dur- 
ing the Revolution ventured far from sustaining 
fleets, only to find itself cut off from supplies and 
surrounded by overpowering numbers of farmer 
soldiers intent on the defense of their homes. No 
other English army again tried the experiment. 
Burgoyne dragged with him a fine park of brass 
cannon to dislodge the Americans from the breast- 
works these experienced woodsmen made so handily 
out of surrounding trees. The Earl of Balcarras 
afterwards remarked that the Americans never de- 
fended their breastworks during this campaign. The 
members of the English House of Commons, who 
were examining him. were surprised that he should 
say this when he wished to insist on American 
prowess, but the Earl added dryly that the reason 
why the Americans never defended their works was 
that they always marched out of them to attack the 

The results of the struggle in the valley of the up- 
per Hudson made the name of Saratoga famous the 
world over. After this, as a French traveler re- 


marked, for the man who loved Americans it was 
no bad thing to be able to say, "I have seen Sara- 
toga." The name clung chiefly around the place of 
Burgoyne's surrender until the world-wide fame of 
the watering place connected it more in men's 
minds with the famous springs than with the scene 
of a struggle between the two English speaking 
nations for supremacy. In name and in situation 
the two spots are linked together in the world's his- 
tory. He who visits the springs cannot fail to find 
a fresh interest in this region from the knowledge 
of its historical importance. 

Since the Revolution, from Washington down, 
distinguished visitors without number have sought 
the Saratoga battle ground and the scene of the sur- 
render to trace the movements of the two armies, 
movements the success or failure of which were to 
decide the fate of a great nation. 


At the close of the war of the Revolution, in 1783 
a solitary settler again sought the neighborhood of 
High Rock Spring. He was the son of the Arnold 
who had lived here before the war. The same year 
General Schuyler, ever a pioneer in this region, cut 
a road from the old village of Saratoga to the spring 
and built here a rude frame house probably the first 
summer cottage in America. A few hardy visitors 
began to appear. The first of these were Washing- 
ton, Governor Clinton and Alexander Hamilton who 
lost their way in seeking for the spring. A settler 
named Tom Connor w T ho had before directed them 
when applied to a second time answered: 


'•I tell you, turn back, take the first right-hand 
path into the woods and then stick to it— any 
darned fool would know the way. " 

He was afterwards greatly mortified to find that 
the man whom he had answered in this way was 
General Washington. 

When Elkanah Watson visited the spring in 1790, 
he found here about a dozen people of respectability, 
living at the one wretched little tavern in the wilder- 
ness kept by Arnold. They drank the exilerating 
water of High Rock Spring and bathed in an open 
log hut hard by, rolling off of a bench into a trough 
which received the spring water. This same year a 
Vermonter named Risley bought the original cabin 
of Schouten and opened in it a rival tavern to that 
of Arnold, which was probably not less wretched in 
its accomodations. 

August, 1792, found Governor John Taylor Gil- 
man of New Hampshire, a visitor at Saratoga 
Springs. While hunting in the neighborhood he 
discovered a jet of water spouting from the rocky 
bank of the stream just below a little waterfall. He 
tasted it and finding it to be mineral water, returned 
to the little hamlet near High Rock Spring to an- 
nounce his discovery. The handful of people living 
there at once visited the new spring which was 
named the Congress, as Governor Gilman had been 
a member of the Continental Congress. 

In 1800 Gideon Putnam bought an acre of ground 
on the present site of the Grand Union and clearing 
it of its pine forests built the first of Saratoga's 
great hotels. Congress Hall followed in 1815 and 


the United States in 1824, each recording in its 
name the patriotic spirit of the day. By this time 
the Hamilton, Columbia, Flat Rock, Monroe, Presi- 
dent, and Red Springs had been discovered. 

From the frontier hamlet in the woods Saratoga 
suddenly came to be the great watering place of the 
country, a gay and fashionable resort. Crowds of 
people from the northern states congregated here 
each summer and southern families from as far as 
New Orleans made the voyage to New York and 
proceeded north by water and stage to spend the 
season at the now famous resort. No distinguished 
visitor to America from the ex-king Joseph Bona- 
parte to Harriet Martineau failed to visit the new 
world watering place, already a village of hotels, 
clustering between its two sets of springs, one to the 
north and the other to the south. 

The situation of Saratoga is remarkable for the 
salubrity of the air, for it lies at the very gateway to 
the Adirondacks from whence its waters spring. 
Accessible to it is the fine scenery of Lake George 
and Lake Champlain and within easy driving dis- 
tance is the battle ground which will render the 
name of Saratoga famous in history to all time. 


In November, 1807, an Englishman named John 
Lambert set out to visit the United States upon the 
only inland route of that day by way of Lake Cham- 
plain. He traveled from Montreal to the village of 
St. Johns. After waiting two days at this place the 
vessel in which he had engaged passage sailed in the 

t 96 

night without him. a favorable wind having at that 
time sprung up. He was forced to spend three days 
more in a very indifferent tavern with no amuse- 
ment but reading the one book of the house known 
as the Independent Wig. At length a small sloop 
from Burlington landed at the town. She was at 
once engaged by Lambert and three merchants also 
waiting to get passage to Whitehall. The Dolphin, 
the sloop in which these four gentlemen embarked f 
was a wretched little vessel which had formerly 
been a regular trader but was laid by at Burlington, 
where she was bought by four men for one hundred 
dollars, the money to be returned if she were seized 
by government officers as un seaworthy. Two of the 
owners, one as captain, the other as crew, had 
brought her to St. Johns with a cargo of butter and 
cheese. Being offered a good price to take the four 
gentlemen to Whitehall and taking on board a cargo 
of some barrels of potash and kegs of butter as wall 
as two other passengers bound for the neighborhood 
of Cumberland Head, they set sail although they 
knew nothing of the navigation of the lake and 
were no sailors. The vessel was but a crazy, leaky 
affair, there was no boat in which to take refuge in 
case she sank, the sails were ragged, the pumps 
choked or broken and the passengers were obliged 
to fall to work and bale water from under the cabin 
every two hours. 

The weather being fine they were troubled with 
no fears but amused themselves with those of the 
captain who was so little used to sailing that he 
kept a good hold on the peak halyards, and, when- 


ever a puff of wind arose, hastily lowered the peak, 

"What an awful *wind. It blows nation stout." 
The weather was frosty and the cabin passengers 
were obliged to make a fire in an old pitch pot to 
warm themselves. They dined off of some cold 
boiied meat with which they had provided them- 
selves and potatoes cooked in the ship's sole utensil, 
an old iron tea kettle. When night came some of 
the passengers wrapped themselves in overcoats and 
buffalo robes and slept in the cabin; others were 
forced to spend the night on deck as there were not 
berths for all. The moon luckily shown and guided 
the unskilful seamen away from rocks. 

At midnight the Dolphin reached Cumberland 
Head where the captain ran her on the rocks to save 
the trouble of anchoring her. The passengers came 
on deck and spent an hour hailing a tavern on shore 
in hopes of a boat coming off to them. A man 
finally put off with a canoe, half full of water. A 
tin pail was handed down to him but his boat was so 
leaky as to fill almost as fast as it was emptied. The 
captain and one of the passengers finally got into 
the crazy craft which promptly upset with them. 
The men on board the Dolphin w r ere casting about 
to find a rope to throw to the men floundering in 
the water w hen they saw that they had gained their 
feet and were making for the shore up to their 
necks in water. The tin pail was lost with the cap- 
sizing of the canoe and the tea kettle had now to do 
duty as a bailing utensil. The gentleman who had 
gone ashore in hopes of getting something hot at the 


tavern had but a cold reception there being refused 
admittance. He returned in ten minutes to the 
sloop with his wet clothes frozen upon him. The 
captain was in a similar plight when he also re 
turned after reporting at the custom house. It now 
took all hands two hours to get the sloop off the 

At four o'clock in the morning the vessel arrived 
opposite a small bay in the township of Shelburne 
and here passengers and crew went ashore and 
walked into a farm house where the door stood on a 
latch. The voyagers dried and warmed themselves 
before a good fire and rejoiced over a bountiful 
"American breakfast" of beefsteak, fried pork, 
eggs, apple pie, pickles, cheese, cider and milk 
toast. The farmer asked but a York shilling for 
this meal but was paid the usual tavern price. He 
was an ingenious nlan and had contrived a churn on 
which one of his boys could ride as on a rocking 
horse while he churned. 

The travelers sailed again at eight in the morning 
admiring Lake Champlain, beautifully diversified 
with islands, the numerous farms and pleasant 
bouses near the water's edge, the bold and elevated 
portions of the shore to be seen here and there and 
the fine distant view of the Green Mountains. But 
the leaks in the vessel were a great drawback and 
the' water constantly gained upon them if they 
stopped to gaze at the scenery. Lambert finally 
went below among the kegs of butter and barrels of 
potash with some oakum and a calking iron. After 
some search he found the principal leak and stopped 


it being careful not to hammer hard lest his iron 
should go completely through the rotten wood of the 
ship's hull. This done the passengers were not 
much troubled with the work of bailing and the old 
tea kettle had a rest. 

Having entered the narrow portion of the lake be- 
low Crown Point the Dolphin ran aground and it 
became necessary to call to her assistance a man 
from the shore into whose scow some barrels of 
potash were put to lighted the vessel in ord«-r that 
she might float off of the shoal. When she had been 
reloaded with the potash the passengers hired the 
man of the scow to accompany the vessel as a pilot. 
All this detained the Dolphin until nearly dark. 
The wind began to blow from the northeast and the 
vessel was compelled to crash through shell ice. 
The one nun of her crew, known as David, began to 
cry out at this that the ice would cut her bows in 
two and sink her, putting the passengers in heart 
by telling them how a sloop had lately been sunk in 
these waters in this way and several people drowned 

The Dolphin did not venture into the narrow 
southern arm of Lake Champlain leading to White- 
hall until the the next morning when she passed 
"Old Ti" as David called Ticonderoga and sailed be- 
tween two piles which had stood in the channel 
since the time when the Americans had had a float- 
ing bridge between this fort and that of Mount In- 
dependence. The intricacies of the channel beyond 
Ticonderoga alarmed the passengers whose new 
pilot proved to be an uncertain guide and now con- 
fessed that it was long since he had been that way. 


The wind still blew hard with sudden flaws from the 
mountains which several times very nearly upset the 
ship. Once the boom made an unexpected sweep 
across the deck, knocking down two of the passen- 
gers and carrying away the hat of one. Lambert 
found the scenery sublime though forbidding at this 
season of the year. At three miles above Whitehall 
the sloop was brought to a complete stop by ice in 
the channel. She ran some hundreds of yards 
through it but her bows wearing badly the passen- 
gers feared her rotten hull would not long stand the 
cutting of the ice. She was run ashore, tied to a 
tree and with their baggage on their backs her pas- 
sengers clambered through the forests to Whitehall. 
Lambert returned to Canada the following spring 
taking a stage from Boston to Burlington. Travelers 
from Boston to Burlington at this time had some 
difficulty in finding their way for finger boards fre- 
quently hung parallel with the post to which they 
were attached and mile posts often lay on the 
ground. One traveler once got out of his vehicle to 
read one of the reclining milestones and found 
written beneath its illegible inscription, "No re- 
liance can be placed on the milestones all the way 
to Burlington for they lie, every one of them." The 
town of Burlington, which thirty years before had 
been represented by one log hut in the woods now 
contained twenty-five hundred inhabitants, brick 
houses and a college. Trade with Canada had been 
the making of this town. The inhabitants of this 
region groaned sadly at this time under the embargo 
act which for the time completely cut off their 




"It's tarnation provoking," said one rustic, '"that 
we can't swop goods with the Canadians. What ha s 
England or France to do with Lake Champlain? 
They don't search our vessels and take our seamen 
there. " 

Another declared his determination to "wagon" 
his ashes as he Called potash to Canada through by- 
roads "in spite of their O-grab-me laws." 

Lambert proceeded by land from Burlington to 
St. Albans, riding in the mail wagon, a springless 
country cart furnished with chairs for seats. He 
was unmercifully shaken over the rudest of forest 
roads. He was obliged to wait at a small house in 
St. Albans Bay for the wind to subside before cross- 
ing the flooded waters to where a ferry boat could 
be obtained being obliged to make this first part of 
the trip in a miserable canoe scarcely safe in fine 
weather. The ferry boat proved to be a flat bot- 
tomed scow which with foursto^t rowers reached in 
an hour a narrow portion of North Hero Island 
where the boat was pulled across the land and being 
launched again crossed Lake Champlain and 
ascended the (hazy River to the village of the same 
name, after a row of twenty miles. From here 
Lambeit proceeded to Canada with an agreeable 
memory of his last view T of Lake Champlain. its tree 
covered islands, its distant mountains and its noble 
stretches of placid water. 

It was but shortly after this and not long after the 
invention of the steamboat that one was placed on 
Lake Champlain, and the old travel by sloops and 
scow ferry boats came for ever to an end. Many a 


man took his first steamboat trip on Lake Cham- 
plain and thought it "the most delightful kind of 
conveyance" he had ever tried. But there were not 
wanting old lady passengers who annoyed such gen- 
tlemen with anxious inquiries as to whether they 
thought "all was safe," wished to know "how hot 
they kept the furnace" and timorously forecast an 
accident at which passengers would have only a 
choice between death by "hot water on deck or cold 
water below." 


A final attempt to invade New York by way of the 
Champlain Valley was made in the last war with 
England. Had this expedition succeeded the havoc 
must have been great for this now populous region 
including the summer resort of Saratoga must have 
fallen a prey to all the ruin and horrors of an in- 
vasion. Four years before war broke out the gov- 
ernment recognizing the danger sought to secure 
this important "doorway of the country" as the In- 
dians had called Lake Champlain by building two 
gunboats upon it. In 1813 two armed sloops, the 
Eagle and the Growler, were launched. These ves- 
sels afterwards fell victims to a body of English 
troops who attacked them with musketry in a nar- 
row part of the lake. The Eagle sank from the 
opening of her seams caused by the discharge of her 
own guns while the Growler unable to make a re- 
treat because of the high wind, struck. 

That a more efficient defense might be made, a 
young naval officer, Captain Thomas McDonough, 
who fought with Decatur at Tripoli, was now sent 


by the United States government to biild and hav- 
ing built to command a fleet on Lake Champlain. 
McDonough had so few men to assiit him that he 
labored with his own hands at the work of ship 
building. While he was thus busy in 1813 the Eng- 
lish with the two captured American sloo| s and 
some gunboats and batteaux made a descent upon 
Plattsburgh destroyed some American stores at this 
place and captured trading vessels plying the lake. 

The following year, 1814. an English army of 
about fourteen thousand men under Sir George Pre. 
vost, assembled at Montreal for the invasion of 
northern New York by way of the Champlain Val- 
ley. The army was to advance southward along the 
western shore of the lake, sustained by an English 
fleet strong enough to command these waters. The 
English and Americans worked hard during the 
early part of the summer to add to their squadrons. 
McDonough launched his last vessel about the mid- 
dle of August, the English their's on the twenty- 
fifth of the same month. McDonough was ready to 
set sail a few days before the English. He advanced 
at once to Cumberland Bay where the Americans 
proposed to make a stand against the invaders. 
Fifteen hundred militia had gathered near the town 
of Plattsburgh for this purpose while McDonough's 
squadron rode the waters of the bay. 

The English land force advanced against Platts- 
burgh on the sixth of September, attacked as they 
neared the town by American militiamen from be- 
hind fences and stone walls. They pushed on after 
some skirmishing as far as the north iside of the 


Saranac but were repulsed by the Americans when 
they attempted to cross the stream. They then pre- 
pared to lay a regular siege to the American forts 
on the south side of the Saranac and waited for the 
English fleet to come to their aid. The Americans 
galled them meanwhile with incessant skirmishing. 
The English are said to have lost on land over a 
thousand men in killed, wounded and prisoners near 

An American guard boat was constantly on the 
watch in the main lake for the English squadron. 
Soon after sunrise on the eleventh of September the 
boat pulled in to Cumberland Bay with the news 
that the enemy's ships were approaching. Mc- 
Donough at once ordered his vessels cleared for 
action. So completely was the deck of the Saratoga 
swept of encumbernnces that some hen coops were 
even thrown overboard and the chickens allowed to 
wander al.iout the ship 

The upper sails of the English vessels soon hove in 
sight over Cumberland Head. The English squadron 
consisted of a large ship, the Confiance, a brig, the 
Linnet, and two sloops, the Chubb and the Finch. 
The Americans had also four vessels, the Saratoga. 
a ship, the Eagle a brig, a schooner called the 
Ticonderoga and a sloop named the Preble. The 
Americans had ten gunboats, the English twelve ; 
the English squadron carried more and larger 
cannon than the American and was manned with a 
greater number of men. The English flagship, the 
Confiance, was the largest ever seen in these waters, 
having the gun deck and the armament of a heavy 


frigate. She was also provided with a furnace for 
heating shot for the purpose of setting the American 
vessels on fire. The Americans had eighty -five guns 
and eight hundred men, the English ninety-five 
guns and one thousand men. 

McDonough anchored his four vessels in a line 
across Cumberland Bay with their sides toward the 
enemy. He threw out kedge anchors on either side 
of his flagship, the Saratoga, to enable her to be 
warped around. Back of his vessels and command- 
ing the spaces between them he anchored the gun- 

The English army on land hailed the appearance 
of the English fleet with joyous shouts. The Eng- 
lish vessels formed in line south of Cumberland 
Head and then moved in toward the American line. 
The English vessels came bows on. The cannon 
of the American vessels were all loaded and a 
solemn silence preceded the opening of the battle. 
As the enemy's ships approached the Eagle suddenly 
fired a broadside from her four long eighteen pound 
cannon. Startled by this noise a young game 
rooster on the Saratoga flew upon a gun slide, 
flapped his wings and crowed. He seemed to be 
bidding the enemy defiance and the crew of the ship 
gave three ringing cheers and went into battle with 
heightened spirits. 

The English gunboats opened fire but McDonough 
still withheld the order to the waiting gunners on 
the Saratoga. He was watching the shots of the 
Eagle and saw that they fell short of the enemy. At 
length when they took effect he sighted a gun him- 


self and a cannonade was opened all along the 
American line. The effect was terrible on the Eng- 
lish vessels as they slowly approached bows on. 
They came on steadily however for Captain Downie, 
the English commander, felt sure of success if he 
could but gain a position near enough to the Ameri- 
can vessels to bring^his superior cannon to bear 
upon them with the best effect. At length the 
American fire could no longer be born and the Eng- 
lish squadron anchored about a quarter of a mile 
short of the American fleet. The English brig, the 
Linnet, as she came around fired a broadside into 
the Saratoga but the Confiance held her fire until 
she was anchored when her whole side seemed for a 
moment a sheet of flame as she sent a broadside into 
the Saratoga with terrible effect. The shock over, 
Captain McDonough looked about him to see half of 
his crew prostrate on the deck. Almost a fifth of 
them, about forty men, had been killed or wounded, 
the others were only knocked down by the force of 
the blow. The dead so cumbered the deck that it 
•was found necessary to unfasten the hatches and 
pass them below. 

In a few minutes the Saratoga had recovered from 
the shock and returned the fire. The battle went 
steadily on but the force of the broadsides gradually 
decreased as gun after gun became injured. The 
English sloop, Chubb, was soon disabled by a broad- 
side from an American brig, the Eagle, and drifted 
down between the two squadrons until forced by a 
shot from the Saratoga to surrender. She was 
towed in to Plattsburgh by a boat's crew in command 



of a young midshipman. Nearly half of the crew of 
this vessel was found to be killed or wounded. A 
half an hour later the English sloop Finch was 
driven out of line by the Ticonderoga and drifted 
upon a shoal at Crab Island where a shot or two 
from an American battery forced her to strike and 
she was taken possession of by invalids from the 
American hospital. 

The English gunboats meanwhile struggled des- 
perately with the American sloop Preble and finally 
forced her to fall back into the bay where she was 
of no more service. These smaller craft now fell 
upon the American schooner Ticonderoga. Her cap- 
tain, Lieutenant Cassin, walked the taffrail amidst a 
hail of grape and cannister shot and caused her 
cannon to be loaded with bags of musket balls. 
Several times the crews of the English gunboats at- 
tempted to board the Ticonderoga. The loss of this 
vessel would have meant the exposure of the rear of 
the American line and the defeat of the squadron, 
but the spirited commander beat off the boarding 
parties with such showers of missiles as they could 
not endure and in the end drove the English gun- 
boats back to a respectful distance. 

At the other end of the American line the Eagle 
was forced to bear the broadsides of the Linnet as 
well as part of the fire of the Confiance at a time 
when she was disabled by losing the hawsers 
attached to her cables intended to draw her around 
to where she could bring her guns to bear upon the 
enemy. The captain of the Eagle finally cut her 
cable, ran down behind the American line and 


anchored between but in the rear of the Ticonderoga 
and Saratoga now the only ships remaining in line- 
With his other broadside turned toward the enemy 
he was able to use his fresh guns. The Saratoga, how- 
ever, was exposed by this movement to the full fire 
of both the Linnet and the Confiance, the Linnet 
raking her bows. 

The guns of the Saratoga were now almost 
silenced on the side toward the enemy. Some had 
been injured by cannon shot, others dismounted and 
still others had been ruined by overcharges due to 
the eagerness of the American gunners to do execu- 
tion. Twice the ship had been set on fire by hot 
shot from the furnace of the Confiance. At length 
the Saratoga's last gun flew off of its carriage and 
down the main hatchway of the vessel. The Sara- 
toga must either strike or turn completely around 
and bring a fresh broadside to bear on the enemy. 
By pulling on the hawsers attached to kedge or 
warping anchors the ship was slowly brought half 
way around and hung in this position exposed to a 
raking broadside from the Linnet. It was only by a 
great effort that she was drawm somewhat further 
around until some of her aftermost guns could be 
brought to play upon the Confiance. She could De 
moved no farther, there being no favoring wind to 
aid in the labor of warping. At this critical moment 
and when a little more delay would have lost the 
day the ship's master contrived to draw one of the 
ropes attached to a kedge anchor under the vessel's 
bow. The Crew then pulled upon it and the Sara- 
toga swung slowly around with her other side 


toward the enemy. This bit of masterly seaman- 
ship won the day. The Confiance attempted to 
make the same maneouver but was only forced ahead. 
When she could no longer endure the fresh broad- 
sides of the Saratoga and her guns were well nigh 
silenced she lowered her flag. The seamen of the 
Saratoga now pulled upon her hawser until they 
brought her broadside guns to bear upon the Linnet 
which struck fifteen minutes later. At this the gun- 
boats which had been driven backward about a 
mile lowered their colors. Of sixteen English flags 
flying in Cumberland Bay that morning all were 
down. Not a mast was standing on either the cap- 
tured English or the victorious American ships to- 
which a sail could be attached and it was impossible ■■ 
to send any vessel to take possession of the Englishi 
gunboats, which at first made off slowly as though 
doubting their liberty and then when the situation 
dawned upon their officers hastened to escape. 

The American commander, McDonough, was 
twice knocked senseless during the action, once 
while he was aiming a favorite gun by the falling 
of a broken spar upon his back and again when a 
shot drove the captain of his gun in upon him and 
threw him upon the deck, covered with blood. Cap- 
tain Downie, the English commodore, was killed 
during the action by the driving in of a cannon 
upon him, an American shot having struck the 
muzzel of the gun behind which he stood. The 
Saratoga received fifty-five round shot in her hull , 
and the Confiance one hundred and five. The Eng- 
lish guns on this ship were not well aimed after the 


first broadside which took so much effect on the 
Saratoga. They damaged the rigging of the Sara- 
toga more than her crew and her hull. The Ameri- 
cans aimed with the same precision they often 
showed in land battles. The English admitted a 
loss of eighty -three killed and one hundred and ten 
wounded, though this did not include the killed and 
w^ounded on the gunboats. The Americans are said 
to have lost but fifty-two killed and fifty-eight 
wounded. Two American officers fell, one being 
completely cut in two by a cannon ball. It is a 
gruesome fact that one officer was knocked down by 
the flying head of a seaman. 

The American and English armies as well as 
numerous spectators watched the action from the 
shores of Cumberland Bay. The inhabitants of the 
country trembled with anxiety for the fate of the 
American squadron, the defeat of which meant all 
the horrors for them of an invasion. Cheers arose 
when one by one the English colors were lowered. 
Sir (jeorge Prevost had spent the hours of the battle 
in making confident preparations to lay siege to the 
Americans at Plattsburg. When, however, he found 
that the English fleet was defeated he beat a hasty 
retreat, leaving behind him many cannon and much 

Very old people living in the neighborhood of 
Lake George have told me how their parents and 
crowds of other people from the country around 
drove to Lake Champlain after the battle to see the 
shattered vessels of the English fleet, on the decks 
of which could still be seen the blood and hair of 
killed and wounded men. 


By the well fought battle of Plattsburgh the beau- 
tiful Champlain and Saratoga region was relieved 
from further invasion save that of the summer 
tourists who makes the northern campaign every 
summer, traversing this region in search of recrea - 
tion and health. To such the delights of this land 
of rest and pleasure can "not but be enhanced by a 
knowledge of the heroic struggles fought out upon 
this soil enriching it forever with historic associa- 



Vast Panoramic Views of Lakesi 

Mountains and Islands. 
459 Acres of Park; Miles of Walks 

J459 Acres of Park; Miles of Walks f 

and Drives in Hotel Grounds. A 

A Perfect Golf Course for Scientific J 

f Playing. f 

▼ Finest Summer Resort in the North. * 
Three miles south of Plattsburgh, 
on the 

Delaware and Hudson R. R. 

The Shortest, Quickest and Best 
Line from Montreal to New York. 
Tourists Through Lake Cham = 
plain spend the night at Hotel 

© 9 © 




TJ/ie Juincoin Spring. 



Lincoln Spring was discovered in 1896 by drill- 
ing through the earth's surface to a distance of \$Jft 
425 feet. The water has been analyzed by Prof- 
essor Perkins, of Union Coilege. His analysis 
discloses the presence of many valuable proper- 
ties similar in general character to those of the 
most celebrated Saratoga springs, but combined 
in such a manner as to produce one of the most- 
effective and desirable waters found at this cele- 
brated spa. The water is a saline-alkaline, very 
agreeable to the taste, and acts with the best re- 
sults on the kid >eys, stomach and bladder. The 
lithia it contains is valuable in kidney and blad- 
der troubles, and the magnesia serves to correct 
and regulate the stomach, which may be disturbed 
by indigestion or other harmful causes. Lincoln 
Spring water is a great blood purifier, and has a 
//A\\ soothing, quieting effect on the system, producing 
influences which promote sleep and rest and tone 
up the system. It is a delicious table water, well 
suited to all the purposes of the dinner, and may 
be used freely without any harmful effects. It 
acts as a tonic when imbibed in small quantities, 
and serves as a cathartic when taken half an 
hour before breakfast. It is not injurious toper- 
sons who are well and do not need medicine, but 
tends to keep the system in a healthy condition. 

The water is bottled at the spring in all its 
natural purity in such a manner as to retain the 
natural carbonic acid gas with which it is so 
abundantly charged, and which physicians so 
highly recommend. A drive or walk from the 
village to the spring and return will amply repay 
all visitors at this famous resort. 



JAMES HANEY, Manager, 

(Directly Opposite D. & H. R. R. Station ) 

This old established house has been for years the resting place- 
for Tourists going through Lake Champlain, or into the Adirondack^. 
It is the Largest and Finest Hotel in Flattsburgh, Lighted Through- 
out with Electric Lights, and has all other modern improvements. 

The Finest Dining Room in Northern New York. 


Fitted and Located for the Summer Travel 

Tourists going through Lake Champlain will 
find it to their advantage to 


And have a good night's rest, the Fouquet House being only two- 
minutes' walk from all Steamers on Lake Champlain. In rear of 
the House are the New Goverment Barracks. This Hotel is also- 
the nearest to the Catholic Summer School. 

The House has been Thoroughly Overhauled, Re-painted Inside 
and Out, and stands today one of the finest Hotels in the country.. 


A Saline Water, 
Cathartic and Alterative, 
Of High Medicinal Virtues. 

By its efficacy, parity, and acknowledged sani- 
tary properties and the happy proportions of its vari- 
ous ALKALINE salts, the CONGRESS WATEc* 
stands UN T RIVAL LED, as attested by the great 
Mineral Water drinking public, who might have been 
seen the past season at Saratoga hurrying to slake 
their thirst at this HEALTHFUL FOUNTAIN. 

While the water is now as strongly cathartic as 
at any p-riod since its discovery— over one hundred 
years ago -it still retains its DELICIOUS FLAVOR 
ways been charter istic of this famous water. 

It is carefully packed for shipment in cases of 4 
and 2 dozen pints and 2 dozen quarts. 

Analysis, Pamphlets, etc., at our offices. 

At all druggists, grocers, hotels, and 


Saratoga Springs, N. Y. 

Rogers Rock Hotel 



This hotel occupies a bold promontory a little to the 
north of Rogers' Slide, and accommodates 125 guests. It is 
the farthest north of any Lake George ho 'el, and is 110 feet 
above the water. Every window affords a lake view. 

W. D. TREADWAY, Prop. 

P. 0. Address, Rogers' Rock, Essex Co., N. Y. 











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3 3 

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The Central House 


T*HIS commodious and thoroughly refitted house with 
modern improvements has accommodations for ioo 

£» people, and will be open to the public from June first 

until October first. The house is situated in the quiet 
and shady little village of Lake George, in the town of 
Caldwell, at the head of the famous and most beautiful 
of all the Adirondack lakes — Lake George — and is sur- 
rounded by scenes of historical interest pertaining to 
the days of colonial and Indian warfare. Running past 
the north end of the house is a short street leading 
down to the lake and Pine Point Park, called Amherst 
street in memory of General Amherst, who embarked at 
this point with 11,000 men and captured Fort Ticonder- 
oga in 1759. The Central House has been practically 

W rebuilt and newly furnished during the past year and 

is furnished with bathrooms and electric bells. 


Arlington Hotel 

TTHE Arlington Hotel, situated a little south of the 
Central House, is open all the year round, and is 
popular with Commercial travelers. It is comparatively 
a new house, and contains many modern conveniences, 
including steam heat, making it a desirable place for 
people wishing to spend the autumn months at the 
Holy Lake. While Mr. Worden is proprietor of the 
two houses, he aims to make the management of each 
entirely distinct, affording guests a choice, as their 
tastes suggest. 


CENTRAL HOUSE— $2 per day; §9 to $12 per week. 
ARLINGTON HOTEL— $2 per day; S7 to $9 per week. 
Special rates for families, and to people making prolonged 

For further information address the proprietor, 

EDWIN J. WORDEN, Lake George, N. Y. 


Z U 

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Lessee Saranac and Lake Placid Railroad. 




Chazy *£a/ee, Chateaugay JLa/ce, jCoon 
jCakc. Saranac yCci/ce and UJake J f acid 

Three Trains Daily Each Way. 

Drawing Room Cars on all Trains. 

Wagnsr pila:e sleeping cars on all night trains, and 
Wagner drawing room cars on all day trains between 


Tickets, Sleeping and Drawing Room Tar Accommoda- 
tions, and Baggage Checked from all Stations. 

Gen'i Manager. Plattsburgh, N. Y. 


Saratoga Spripijs. 1^. Q. S/nytl?, proprietor 



(American and European,) 


Forty Rooms. Steam Heat. 

Electric Bells. Rate $2 Per Day. 



F. N. BOYNTON, Proprietor. 


408, 410, 412 BROADWAY, 



Dry Goods, . o . Mattings, 

Ladies' Suits, i Curtains, 

cloaks, II Upholstery, 

Waists, ^ Men's 

Separate Skirts, # Furnishings. 

Carpets, Rugs, § Bicycles, 3S&. 


Champlain Transportation Co, 

Lake George Steambcat Company. 

"The Gateway of the Country/' 

Magnificent Sidewheel Steamers make double 
daily service through Lake Champlain and Lake 
George, passing some of the grandest scenery on 
this Continent. 

Historic Ruins, sites of early land and naval 
battles, rugged shores, picturesque mountains, 
make a trip through these lakes one never to be 

Through service from May 30th to October 
1st. Local service on Lake George by Steamer 
Mohican in May and October. Steamer Chateau- 
gay on Lake Champlain from April to January. 
Excellent cuisine, attentive officers and clean 
boats are our special features. 

r lhe popular route between New York, Al- 
bany, Troy, Saratoga, Catholic Summer School, 
Platt^burgh, Adirondacks, White and Green 
Mountains, Ausable Chasm, Ottawa, Montreal, 
Thousand Islands and Quebec. 

Close connections with all trains at terminal 
points. Tickets reading via, D. &. H. R. R. ac- 
cepted for passage on Lake Champlain. 

Send for "A Summer Paradise" and Fine Map with 
Time Tables. 

General Office:, GEORCE RUSHLOW, 

Prospect riountain I 

2000 Feet Above Lake George. # 
The Grandest View in America. $ 

Embracing the Adirondacks, Green, White and Catskill 
Mountains, the Berkshire Hills and 30 miles of Lake George. 


Otis Inclined Cable Railway 


Cars leave the foot of the mountain every thirty minutes, 
from 9 A. M. to 7 P. M. Special trips at other hours on appli- 
cation to the superintendent. 

Stages will be in waiting at the Delaware and Hudson R. R. 
station and steamboat landing to carry passengers to the foot 
of mountain. 

Lunch and Refreshments atthe c L u ino mit 

Grand Pavilion for Picnic Parties, 

Bowling Alley, Electric Lights, 

Beautiful Walks, Woods and Sunsets. 

Tickets may be purchased at Casino for dinners at the Lake 
House, including return trip to the top of mountain. These 
tickets will be sold at summit only. 

Special Entertainments for Moonlight Evenings, will be 
Advertised During the Season. 


Or> Sebroor) Lal^e, [S. Y. 

The Taylor House is surrounded by 4,000 native pines and com- 
mands a view of the lake and mountains for miles. 

All Modern Improvements. 

Milk Cream and Vegetables 

from own Dairy Farm. 

C. A. TAYlOR & SON, 

Taylors-on-Schroon, N. Y. 
C. F. TAY OR, Jr , Manager. 



Potter-sVille,, Ch^-ster, 
Scn/oo^ Lake, Frieftd'5 Lake, 
Brat\t Lake, Loot\ Lake, 
Joh>\5k>urcjr\, WeaveKoWn, 
North, Creek, Schroorv Village, 
Horicorv, Hill Brook. 

F. F. MARQUETT, Prop., 

.P. O., Riparius, Warren County, N. Y. 







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The heart of this wonderful region of mountains, 
lakes and streams is traversed by the Adirondack 
Division of the New York Central and Hudson 
River R. R. and to more fully inform the public 
regarding its beauties and easy means of access 
the Passenger department has just issued a book 
entitled "In the Adirondack Mountains," describ- 
ing in detail each resort, and containing also a 
large map in colors, giving a list of hotels, camps, 
lakes, etc., together with their location on the 
map. It has also issued a large folder with map, 
entitled "The Adirondack Mountains and How to 
Reach Them," giving complete and comprehen- 
sive information regarding stage lines, steamers, 
hotels, etc. 

A copy of the book will be sent to any address 
on receipt of two 2-cent stamps, or the folder for 
a 2-cent stamp by George H. Daniels, General 
Passenger Agent, Grand Central Station, New 


Of eourse. you are thinking of going somewhere 
this summer, and. while you have this subject in 
mind it will perhaps pay you to investigate the 
many hundreds of beautiful resorts located along 
the lines of the New York Central <& Hudson 
River R. R. You cannot get a better list to choose 
rom. The Adirondack Mountains, Saratoga, 
Lake George, Lake Champlain, the Berkshire or 
Litchfield Hills, the Catskill Mountains, Niagara 
Falls, the Thousand Islands, the Lake Region of 
Central New York and many others, equally as 
good, are briefly described in a neat folder issued 
by the Passenger Department of the New York 
Central, entitled "America's Great Resorts." 
A eopy will be sent to any address on receipt of 
2-cent stamp by George H. Daniels, General 
Passenger Agent, Grand Central Station, New" 






tfiy. The site of this delightful resort adjoins the famous 

nM/ Hotel Champlain, at Bluff Point, on Lake Champlain. 
It is connected by an Electric Road with Plattsburgh. 
The grounds ovcrl ok the scene of the Battles of Platts- 
burgh and Valcour. 

Its location is superb. Every portion of it's prop 
erty commands beautiful views of Lake Champlain, the 
Adirondacks and Green Mountains. Barding accom- 
modations are provided tor about four hundred, ex- 
clusive of private cottages. The corporation owns five 
handsome furnished cottages, supplied with every 
modern convenience, which are leased to families for 
the season. 

The Champlain Club owns a magnificent Club 
House. Its membership is made up of gentlemen re- 
siding in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Montreal 
and other cities. The overflow at Cliff Haven finds 
pleasant' accommodations in the hotels and private 
boarding houses at Plattsburgh, between which there is 
a ten-minute Electric Street Car Service. Cottage as- 
sociations, made up of persons of congenial spirits, have 
been formed in various cities, for the purpose of estab- 
lishing summer homes at Cliff Haven. Philadelphia, 
New York, Boston and Rochester have already erected 
handsome, commodious buildings. The New York 
Cottage has accommodations for sixty persons. The ^.^ 
Philadelphia, Boston and Rochester about forty each, ^(V^ 

Among the handsome private cottages may be men- 
tioned those of Prof. Arthur H.Dundon, Vice-Principal of 
the New York Normal College, and Rev. Dr. Gabriel ,.v 
fliH\ Healey, of New York. The session begins July nth and MM 
' ends August 28th. The Dining Hall will be open ^V»T 
after June 26. Courses of lectures on topics of in- (/[w 
terest are continued through the session. Special lec- 
tures and courses will be given by eminent men. Satur- 
days and the afternoons of other days are devoted to *». 
rest and amusements. Golf, tennis, bowling, boating, VU^ 
fishing and excursions to Ausable Chasm, the Adiron- /^ 
dacks, Montreal and other points of interest occupy the 
leisure hours of visitors. The Assembly is under the 
auspices of the Catholic Summer School of America, a 
corporation haying a charter from the regents of the 
University, Members of all denominations are wel- 
comed. For prospectus, rates for board and rental of 
cottages, address E. E. STEWART, Supt. Cliff Haven, 
Clinton Co., N. Y. For Prospectus of Champlain Club, 
address H.J. HEIDENIS, 348 West 55th. St., New York 






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}UN 29 1898